Quản trị kinh doanh - Chapter 5: Defining the scope of a project

Learning Elements

Understand the importance of scoping a project, how it defines what the project is to achieve, in what timeframe and at what cost.

5.2 Develop a comprehensive Scope document and understand some of the practical techniques that can be applied in developing the content for the Scope document.

5.3 Understand how the Scope Management Plan differs from the Scope document, and define and establish a process for change management in project environment.

 

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CHAPTER 5Defining the Scope of a ProjectLearning Elements5.1 Understand the importance of scoping a project, how it defines what the project is to achieve, in what timeframe and at what cost. 5.2 Develop a comprehensive Scope document and understand some of the practical techniques that can be applied in developing the content for the Scope document. 5.3 Understand how the Scope Management Plan differs from the Scope document, and define and establish a process for change management in project environment. IntroductionAnswers the most obvious question, but also the most commonly overlooked one:What problem is being solved by delivering this project?Documents Output from Scoping ActivitiesProject CharterProject Scope documentWork Breakdown Structure (WBS)Scope Management PlanEstimating ArtefactsHow Scoping Fits into the TextThe Scope ProcessStep 1: Defining the Project ScopeStep 2: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)Step 3: Integrating the WBS with the OrganisationStep 4: Estimating: Moving Towards a Draft Budget and Schedule Step 1: Defining the Project ScopeThe primary purpose is to define as clearly as possible the deliverable(s) of the project.To be used by the project sponsor and other stakeholders for measuring project success. Step 1: Defining the Project Scope (cont)To clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user.To focus the project on successful completion of its goals.Inadequate scope definition is a primary reason for project failure. Project Scope ChecklistThe Triple ConstraintsThe Triple Constraints (cont)The Triple Constraints (cont)Constrain The original parameter is fixed. The project must meet the completion date, specifications and scope of the project or budget.Enhance Given the scope of the project, which criterion should be optimised?Accept For which criterion is it tolerable not to meet the original parameters?Step 2: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)A hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project.Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the project) to its sub-deliverables and in turn their relationships to the work packages.Hierarchical Breakdown of the WBSCreating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)Facilitates evaluation of cost, time and technical performance of the organisation on a project.Provides management with information appropriate to each organisational level.Helps manage plan, schedule and budget.Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)(cont.)Helps in the development of the organisation breakdown structure (OBS) which assigns project responsibilities to organisational units and individuals.Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the various project elements.WBS Brainstorming TechniquesWhiteboards, Brainstorming, Post-It® Notes, Mind Maps, FacilitatorsExample of a Work Package or ‘Pack’ Contents Step 3: Integrating the WBS with the OrganisationDepicts how the firm is organised to discharge its work responsibility for a project.Provides a framework to summarise organisation work unit performance.Identifies organisation units responsible for work packages.Ties the organisational units to cost control accounts.Integrating the WBS and OBS—House Build ExampleStep 4: EstimatingThe journey from WBS to estimating and the creation of the budget schedule and resource matrix. The Scope Management PlanTypical contentsThe process to be applied for all project change/variation requests. The process for scope verification. The process for deliverable acceptance.How lessons learned will be captured and applied within the project. Change/Variation Control Management Project Scope IntegrationKey Termshierarchical decompositionmilestoneOrganisation Breakdown Structure (OBS)outcomesoutputsproject charterproject change management systemsscope creepScope documentScope Management PlanStatement of Work (SoW)the triple constraintsWBS dictionaryWork Breakdown Structure (WBS)work package

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