Quản trị kinh doanh - Chapter 9: Progress and performance measurements

Structure of a Project-monitoring System

Creating a project monitoring system involves determining:

What data is collected

The collection and analysis of this data

The reporting of the data and types of reports


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CHAPTER 9Progress and Performance Measurements Structure of a Project-monitoring System Creating a project monitoring system involves determining:What data is collectedThe collection and analysis of this dataThe reporting of the data and types of reports What Data is CollectedCurrent status of project (schedule and cost)Remaining cost to compete projectDate that project will be completePotential problems to be addressed nowOut-of-control activities requiring interventionCost and/or schedule overrunsForecast of overruns at project completion The Collection and Analysis of this DataWho will collect the project data?How will the data be collected?When will the data be collected?Who will compile and analyse the data? Reporting of the DataWho will receive the reports?How will the reports be transmitted?When will the reports be distributed?Types of reportsFullException Controlling Project Costs, Resources and SchedulesStep 1: Setting a baseline planStep 2: Measuring progress and performanceStep 3: Comparing plan against actualStep 4: Taking action Step 1: Setting a Baseline PlanThe baseline plan provides the anchor point for measuring performance. The baseline is derived from the cost and duration information found in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and time-sequence data from the network and resource scheduling decisions.The first baseline plan is usually the approved PMP prior to project Execution. Step 2: Measuring Progress and PerformanceTime and budgets are quantitative measures of performance that readily fit into the integrated information system.Additionally, think about qualitative measures and stakeholder satisfaction. Step 3: Comparing Plan Against ActualBecause plans seldom materialise as expected, it becomes imperative to measure deviations from the plan to determine if action is necessary.Being able to compare planned values (PV) against actual values (AC) is key. Step 4: Taking ActionIf deviations from plans are significant, corrective action will be needed to bring the project back in line with the original or revised plan.Leverage the change/variation process to control change in the project environment. Monitoring Time (Schedule) PerformanceTracking Gantt Chart Monitoring Time (Schedule) Performance (cont.)Project Schedule Control ChartPer cent Complete RulePer cent Complete Rules used to assess actual statusActual % complete.0/100 % complete rule.Interval % complete.50/50 rule. Developing an Earned Value Cost/Schedule System (cont.)Define the work using a WBSScopeWork packagesDeliverablesResourcesBudgetsDevelop work and resource schedulesSchedule resources to activitiesTime-phase work packages into a networkDevelop a time-phased budget using work packages included in an activity Accumulate budgets (PV)At the work package level, collect the actual costs for the work performed (AC) Multiply percent complete times original budget (EV)Compute the schedule variance (EV-PV) and the cost variance (EV-AC) Developing an Earned Value Cost/Schedule System (cont.)Review Sir Ganttalot Media Clips Developing an Earned Value Cost/Schedule System (cont.)Comparing Earned ValueWith the expected schedule valueWith the actual costsAssessing Status of a ProjectRequired data elementsData budgeted cost of the work scheduled (PV)Budgeted cost of the work completed (EV)Actual cost of the work completed (AC)Calculate Schedule and Cost VariancesPositive variance indicates a desirable condition, while negative variance suggests problems or changes that have taken place Other Control IssuesScope creepRemember its one of the key reasons for project failureBaseline changesKeeping track of Scope plus agreed changes to baseline in order to make an accurate report on final project performance and deliverables. Further Project Performance ConsiderationsNot just constrained to scope, time, cost and earned value consider:QualitySafetyEnvironmentHuman dimensionCustomerHow would you report on these?Key Termscontrol chartCost Performance Index (CPI)Cost Variance (CV)Earned Value (EV)estimated cost at completion—forecasted (EACf)estimated cost at completion—revised estimates (EACre)exception reportfull reportingmilestonesPer cent Complete Index—actual costs (PCIC)Per cent Complete Index—budget costs (PCIB)planned value (PV)qualitySchedule Performance Index (SPI) Schedule Variance (SV) scope creepTo Complete Performance Index (TCPI)tracking Gantt chartVariance at Completion (VAC)

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