Analyzing and recording transactions

The accounting process identifies business transactions and events, analyzes and records their effects, and summarizes and presents information in reports and financial statements. These reports and statements are used for making investing, lending, and other business decisions.

 

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Analyzing and Recording TransactionsChapter 2C 1Analyzing and Posting ProcessThe accounting process identifies business transactions and events, analyzes and records their effects, and summarizes and presents information in reports and financial statements. These reports and statements are used for making investing, lending, and other business decisions. Sales TicketsBank StatementsPurchase OrdersChecksSource DocumentsBills from SuppliersEmployee Earnings RecordsC 1An account is a record of increases and decreases in a specific asset, liability, equity, revenue, or expense item.The Account and Its AnalysisThe general ledger is a record containing all accounts used by the company. C 2The Account and its AnalysisOwner, CapitalOwner, WithdrawalsC 2LandEquipmentBuildingsCashNotes ReceivableSuppliesPrepaid AccountsAccounts ReceivableAsset AccountsAsset AccountsC 2Accrued LiabilitiesUnearned RevenueNotes PayableAccounts PayableLiability AccountsLiability AccountsC 2Equity AccountsRevenuesOwner’s CapitalOwner’s WithdrawalsExpensesEquity AccountsC 2The Account and its AnalysisC 2Revenues and owner’s contributions increase equity. Expenses and owner’s withdrawals decrease equity.Ledger and Chart of AccountsThe ledger is a collection of all accounts for an information system. A company’s size and diversity of operations affect the number of accounts needed.The chart of accounts is a list of all accounts and includes an identifying number for each account.C 3Debits and CreditsA T-account represents a ledger account and is a tool used to understand the effects of one or more transactions. C 4LiabilitiesEquityAssets=+Double-Entry AccountingC 4Double-Entry AccountingC 4Here is the expanded accounting equation showing the equity section. Double-Entry AccountingAn account balance is the difference between the increases and decreases in an account. Notice the T-Account.C 4Journalizing and Posting TransactionsP 1Dollar amount of debits and creditsJournalizing TransactionsTransaction DateTransaction explanationTitles of Affected AccountsP 1Balance Account ColumnT-accounts are useful illustrations, but balance column ledger accounts are used in practice.P 1Posting Journal EntriesP 1 1Analyzing TransactionsA 1Double-entry accounting is useful in analyzing and processing transactions. Analysis of each transaction follows these four steps.Analyzing TransactionsA 1Analyzing TransactionsA 1Analyzing TransactionsA 1Analyzing TransactionsA 1Analyzing TransactionsA 1After processing its remaining transactions for December, FastForward’s Trial Balance is prepared.P 2Preparing the Trial BalancePreparing a trial balance involves three steps:List each account title and its amount (from ledger) in the trial balance. If an account has a zero balance, list it with a zero in the normal balance column (or omit it entirely).Compute the total of debit balances and the total of credit balances.Verify (prove) total debit balances equal total credit balances.P 2Searching for and Correcting ErrorsIf the trial balance does not balance, the error(s) must be found and corrected.Make sure the trial balance columns are correctly added.Make sure account balances are correctly entered from the ledger.See if debit or credit accounts are mistakenly placed on the trial balance.Re-compute each account balance in the ledger.Verify that each journal entry is posted correctly.Verify that each original journal entry has equal debits and credits.P 2Using a Trial Balance to Prepare Financial StatementsP 3Income StatementP 3Statement of Owner’s EquityP 3Balance SheetP 3Net income from income statementPresentation IssuesDollar signs are not used in journals and ledgers.Dollar signs appear in financial statements and other reports such as trial balances. The usual practice is to put dollar signs beside only the first and last numbers in a column.When amounts are entered in the journal, ledger, or trial balance, commas are optional to indicate thousands, millions, and so forth.Commas are always used in financial statements.Companies commonly round amounts in reports to the nearest dollar, or even to a higher level.P 3Global ViewBoth U.S. GAAP and IFRS prepare the same four basic financial statements. A few differences are found within each statement, but over time these differences are likely to be eliminated. Here is a typical IFRS balance sheet presentation.Accounting Controls and AssuranceAccounting systems depend on control procedures that assure the proper principles were applied in processing accounting information. The passage of SOX legislation strengthened U.S. control procedures in recent years.The percentage of employees in information technology that report observing specific types of misconduct in 2009. Debt RatioEvaluates the level of debt risk.A higher ratio indicates that there is a greater probability that a company will not be able to pay its debt in the future.A 2Total LiabilitiesTotal AssetsDebt Ratio = End of Chapter 2

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