Educational philosophy in training tourism human resources in Vietnam

The essay comes from the thesis: Labor is the decisive factor in the success

of all social processes. Labor resources must be respected and used effectively in

the humanities; must be trained first. By method of analysis - synthesis; history -

logics; combined with qualitative and quantitative research, the essay analyzes

the actual situation of tourism human resources and the training process of

tourism human resources. From that, the essay has pointed out the necessity and

direction of building the educaltional philosophy in training human resources in

tourism in Vietnam.

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926 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IN TRAINING TOURISM HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM Professor Dr. Pham Van Minh Faculty of Economics, National Economics University, Vietnam Email: minhpv@neu.edu.vn Dr. Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy Faculty of Political Theory, National Economics University, Vietnam Email: nbthuy61@gmail.com Abstract The essay comes from the thesis: Labor is the decisive factor in the success of all social processes. Labor resources must be respected and used effectively in the humanities; must be trained first. By method of analysis - synthesis; history - logics; combined with qualitative and quantitative research, the essay analyzes the actual situation of tourism human resources and the training process of tourism human resources. From that, the essay has pointed out the necessity and direction of building the educaltional philosophy in training human resources in tourism in Vietnam. Key words: educational philosophy; human resources in tourism; tourism; training 1. Introduction In fact, the tourism industry has made great contribution to the socio-economic development. However, the tourism industry in Vietnam has some limitations, not corresponding to the potential, strengths and social expectations. It's both lacked and weaked in tourism human resources. Tourism business is small; limited capital, human resources and management experience. The main reason is: “The training and development of tourism human resources have not been properly considered” [1]. Therefore, training human resources should be paid attention. One key content is the development of educational philosophy. Starting from perfecting theories of educational philosophy; the role of educational philosophy in training tourism human resources; and based on the fact that determines the basis and direction of building the necessary educational philosophy. 2. Research objectives and methods 927 2.1. Objectives of the study (1) Contribute to perfecting the theory of the role of educational philosophy in education in general and tourism human resource training in particular.. (2) To study the practical construction of educational philosophy in training human resources for tourism (3) Introduce some corresponding solutions 2.2. Research Methods The article uses a combination of appropriate methods: analysis - synthesis; history - logics; combined with qualitative and quantitative research (to the extent necessary). 3. Research results 3.1. The status of training tourism human resources in Vietnam From the potential and really interested in tourism, Vietnam has many training institutions for tourism human resources. Table 1. Training institutions of specialized in tourism (2016) [2] No. Nature of the training institutions Quantity Percentage % 1 Total 156 100.00 2 Universities 48 30.77 3 Colleges 43 27.56 4 Trade schools 40 25.64 5 Companies 02 1.28 6 Centers 23 14.74 The institutions include public and non-public, domestic and foreign investment; full time and in service, short-term and long-term systems with: 4 levels of university, professional college, 6 levels of college and vocational trade school, 2 post-graduate levels including tourism and tourism economy. In fact, the training institutions have been trying to meet the requirements of the industry and the society but there are many limitations. Lack of professionalism, vocational guidance for target training identifications and needs, very high proportion of women (80%). The facilities, techniques, curriculums and materials in the training did not meet the training requirements (except for funded Luxembourg and funded EU projects). Learners lack practical access conditions, there is no opportunity to promote initiative and 928 creativity. Lack of qualified and specialized teachers. The qualification and ability to use foreign languages, information technology is limited. The training program is very academic, imbalance between theory and practice, there is no strategy for linking, cooperating with employers. Lack of objectivity in the examination, assessment and recognition of training qualifications. Therefore, the quality of tourism human resources is not high, not meet the requirements of professionalism of integration, competition; unevenly distributed in the regions and between the tourism industries. Most of the trained workers work in tourist resorts and large tourist centers. Highlight characteristics of training tourism human resources in Vietnam is spontaneous, subjective, inconsistent due to lack of appropriate EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY. The status of tourism human resources as the following table: Table 2. Tourism human resources in Vietnam 2016 No. Criterion Persons number Percentage % 1 Total 2.250.000 100 2 Under Elementary SC 462.000 20 3 Elementary, trade school, college TC 1.503.000 66, 8 4 University and post graduate ĐH 7.200 3,2 (Source: VITEA) 3.2. Educational philosophy Actually on demand, building EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY - the foundation of all training processes - solutions to improve the quality of training tourism human resources. Humans are always working towards the goal and drawing the right, most effective and most justified argument for the chain of behavior - making up the philosophy [3]. Nowaday, building the educational philosophy reflecting the right strategy of education development is the leading concern of the society, missionary designation; Educational orientation, in response to educational issues: What is it? for whom? How? Educational philosophy is the philosophy of education, the study of the general rules of education. At the same time “is the viewpoint, orientation and direction of education in line with the current economic situation, political regime, social life and cultural level of the time” [3]. It is “a system of ideas and concepts that govern the whole operation of an educational structure. Actually, after all, the educational philosophy of a society depends on the social philosophy of that society” [4]. The philosophy of education is the era, suitable with the conditions of social progress. The educational philosophy is one of the socially normative corridors to direct education and training activities towards educational objectives. 929 Chart 1. The role of education philosophy in training Tourism Human Resources [Source: The authors construct] Educational and training establishments; educational philosophy; education and training activities; tourism human resources. The educational philosophy is formed spontaneously or self-consciously from the whole national education system. Formulation and implementation the educational philosophy has become the task of educational forces and educational institutions around the world. Finland educational philosophy: “Absolutely believe every child has his own ability” through the motto “Faith - Equality - Cooperation, uphold the motto of teaching to study, not to promote examination...” Success in Japanese education is based on the following educaltional philosophy: “Human = morality”; upholding disciplined and self-reliant spirit and building the people who contribute to the country with the foundation of “steel discipline” and the sharing of responsibility with the surrounding. American education has developed through educational philosophy: “self- reliance – independence” , creating a diversity of talents, and establishing economic and social prosperity. "Independence” attaches “respect” and “responsibility”, the school is autonomous - students have many options According to Jacques Delors (1996), UNESCO mentions four cores: learn to know; learn to do; learn to survive; learn to live together. UNESCO recognizes, demonstrates and implements the philosophy of social relations between education and culture; civil rights; social cohesion; job; development; science. The education of Vietnam has gone through many historical stages. Feudal stage: accepting the ancient Chinese education. The French domination stage: receiving the semi-feudal colonial education. But in it there are elements of the new education: propagation of national language, movement to open people’s knowledge, reviving national technology. When the country gained independence and implemented a people's democratic education with the motto “nation-science-mass”; 930 After 1954, Vietnam approached the model of Eastern European education, meeting the requirements of building the North and unifying the country. In the South before 1975[5] recognized three principles: humanistic, nationalistic and liberal. They are the foundation for the educational philosophy. Vietnam affirms: humans has important status; It is not the means, the education must be expanded and received the world scientific and technical knowledge, the spirit of democracy, social development, cultural values of humanity to contribute to the modernization of the country and society. But in the period of innovation, education has shown expressions such as not catch up with the times, not meet the market requirements, reaching low in the region. Table 3. Education index of Vietnam in and some countries in the region HDI Rank Country 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 15 Korea 0.797 0.837 0.843 0.848 0.854 0.856 0.862 0.865 0.865 0.865 17 Japan 0.767 0.785 0.790 0.792 0.795 0.800 0.802 0.808 0.808 0.808 121 Vietnam 0.434 0.470 0.478 0.486 0.494 0.502 0.509 0.513 0.513 0.513 136 Cambodia 0.400 0.478 0.485 0.491 0.494 0.495 0.495 0.495 0.495 0.495 139 Lao 0.352 0.390 0.395 0.403 0.414 0.422 0.436 0.436 0.436 [Source: UNDP] From that fact, it is necessary to build a new suitable educational philosophy, serving the Vietnamese educational system including education in tourism human resources. This philosophy allows learners to integrate into the world. In the process, attention should be paid to normative issues. The interaction between the fundamental factors to form the educational philosophy. From domestic objective conditions, international contexts, educational needs and trends through subjective factors of government, of ministries and ministry agencies, universities and institutions at the same level, together with other agencies that form the characteristics and content of the educational philosophy, means forming the educational philosophy. 931 Chart 2. The interaction between the fundamental factors to form the educational philosophy [Source: The authors construct] From there, the educational philosophy has the characteristics of “people- nation”; “Science – modern”; legal; ideology; trend and movement in education. The basic principles of educational philosophy building  Inheriting and promoting creativity of educational philosophy in the history of the nation.  Towarding educational goals.  Feasibility, and verifiable.  Linking social unification, trust and commitment to implementation.  Democracy - humanities in education Basic contents of the educational philosophy: The educational goal: “To re-establish a different education in order to create free people, to dare and to know ourselves to find the truth, to live and work according to the truth we have chosen, to be responsible for that choice. The unity of society will be the unity of the self-reliant, self-reposible for ourselves and for society, full of self-control and creativity ...” [6]. The Law on Education of Vietnam is formulated with the contents on objectives of education and human development. The motto of educational development in the renovation period is: standardization - modernization - democratization. Accordingly, Prof. Pham Minh Hac proposed an educational philosophy: “Educate self-values” [7]; Based on the knowledge of the Vietnamese people, the educational history of the country, the world trend, the requirements of the country for education, factors affecting the education of Vietnam. According to Prof. - Dr. Vu Minh Giang [8], the Vietnamese educational philosophy is summarized in 5 words: who, respect, micro, inportant, public 932 3.3. Building the educational philosophy in training tourism human resources Basis: Theory of educational philosophy; legal development education and tourism; the status of tourism industry; the status of training tourism human resources; world trend. Direction of educational philosophy construction: (i) To concretize on the cultural aspect of education and training establishments in compatibility with tourist establishments and the whole society (ii) Educational philosophy guides building corporate culture, school culture with three elements: Vision, Mission and Core Values. (iii) Educational philosophy guides the implementation of solution of tourism human resources in Vietnam to 2020, vision to the year of 2030 - Develop and implement national and local development planning of tourism human resources. - Develop a network of training and retraining establishments for tourism to meet increasing demands on the population of t tourism human resources. - Standardization building and implementation tourism human resources. - Building, enforcing and implementing the school standard to improve the capacity of tourism training and fostering gradually integrating vocational standards in the region. (iv) Training tourism human resources and tourism activities including deep cultural content, creating corporate culture. (v) Developing an educational philosophy in dialectic and revolution: The educational philosophy must be maintained, controlled, improved and changed when necessary. (vi) Some suggestions about habits, mindset needs to form in the training audience and tourism human resources: Nothing helps develop intelligence like traveling (Emile Zola); Let's see the world. That's better than any dream (Ray Bradbury); Life is a daring adventure or nothing (Helen Keller); There is a kind of magic that is going further then returning and completely changed (Kate Douglas Wiggin); Travel will kill prejudice, persistence, and conservatism (Mark Twain); Going further, closer to yourself (Andrew McCarthy); because travel teaches you tolerance (Benjamin Disraeli) [9]; All in to: love the human and love the earth. 933 4. Conclusions and recommendations Improving the quality of tourism human resources training needs to develop and implement the educational philosophy with historical depth, approaching the trend of the times from practical needs, to integrate into the quintessence of the nation and the times; so that each of the subjects involved in tourism is imbued and experssed with the spirit of humanity and tourism culture. Therefore, we have to: (1) Promote the spirit of self-reliance, creative initiative of tourism human resources training institutions. (2) Build school culture and progressive corporate culture; At the same time, the training program has been upgraded in terms of capacity approach and specific value promotion in order to shorten the distance between training and using the tourism human resources”; (3) In training should guide learners to develop skills that are beneficial for lifelong learning; improve the passive attitude of the learner in training; to cultivate the rational labor of science, have a wide professional knowledge, high culture, attention to cultural behavior and foreign languages (4) Improve standards for training quality evaluation of tourism human resources according to the educational philosophy. References 1. The Ministry of Polistic (2017), the Resolution No.08-NQ/TW “Resolution on development of tourism becomes a spearhead economic industry”; posted on Vietnam Communist Party Online Newspaper dated 16/1/2017 2. Master. Nguyen Tan Trung, Assoc. & Dr. Pham Xuan Hau (2016), “Tourism Specialization - Van Hien University; 2016; “High quality training solution of tourism human resource of Van Hien University meets integration requirements”; posted on [ the fifth accessed day, 04/5/2017 3. Le Ngoc Thong (2016); “Building educational philosophy to improve the quality of higher education management in the context of self-reliance”, published in the academic yearbook “Improving the quality of university management in conditions of self-reliance” in National Economics University, on 5/2016 4. Tran Huu Quang (2008); «Discussion on the educational philosophy» ; posted on www.diendan.org/viet-nam/ban-ve-triet-ly-giao-duc; dated 25-2-2008. 934 5. Đo Tien Sy (GD&TD) (2015) ; « The teaching and positive learning of educational philosophy ” posted on dated 4/5/2017 6. Manh Nguyen (2015); “ Vietnam and the “lagging behind” a few decades compared to the region”; posted on dated 15-09-2015 7. Author Nguyen Ngoc (2007); “ Again on the story of educational philosophy”; posted on dated 03/10/2007 8. Nguyen Binh (2012); “Disccusion on the educational philosophy in Vietname”; posted on https://elib4u.wordpress.com; dated 5/7/2012 9. EF Viet nam, (2017),“50 of the most inspirational travel quotes of all time”; posted on the fifth accessed day, 04/5/2017

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