Solutions to opening skill improvement for chess team of 10-10 juvenile sport school

Research papers by national and international experts on chess

shows that the development of opening skills can be accomplished in a variety

of ways. Selection of the right methods and means is essential for developing the

chess player’s opening thinking abilities.The article presents the results of the

performance tests and professional assessments with 10 experimental and 10

control players to demonstrate the importance of training exercises in developing

the chess opening skill. Thereby, it is contributed to improve the efficiency of the

forms of opening, the sense of training and self-training chess, as well as the

quality of chess training in general and opening teaching in particular.

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SolutionS to opEning Skill improvEmEnt For ChESS tEam oF 10-10 JuvEnilE Sport SChool Ha Minh Diu, PhD.1 Abstract: Research papers by national and international experts on chess shows that the development of opening skills can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Selection of the right methods and means is essential for developing the chess player’s opening thinking abilities.The article presents the results of the performance tests and professional assessments with 10 experimental and 10 control players to demonstrate the importance of training exercises in developing the chess opening skill. Thereby, it is contributed to improve the efficiency of the forms of opening, the sense of training and self-training chess, as well as the quality of chess training in general and opening teaching in particular. Keywords: Chess, Solution, Opening, Team, Thinking. 1. INTRODUCTION Targeted impact through professional exercises to improve opening skills for chess athletes plays a leading role in improvement of calculation capacity of complex and continuous variables. Especially, enhancing the ability of strategical thought helps players improve their analysis - assessment and planning skills. Actually, the opening skill is a continuous thought process in order to find the most effective moves in changed chess situations during the game. These skills help the learner to improve their coordination between the chess pieces on the chessboard, directing to solve clear tasks such as checkmate, claiming a draw, grabbing a chess piece, etc. It is further nearly the preparation for players the plan, tactical strike as well as strategic direction. It is therefore essential to improve the opening skill [7], [10]. There are also some research papers on chess such as Duong Thanh Binh (2005): Study on the practice level assessment of male chess players in age of 12-13 in Ho Chi Minh City, Pedagogy Master Thesis, University of Sport 2. Dang Van Dung (1999), Study and building of criteria for practice level assessment of chess players - initial training period, Pedagogy Master Thesis, University of Sport I. Ha Thi Thuy Lan (2012), Building of standards 1 Unit: Department of Physical Education – Ha Noi National Education University 2, Tel: 0984 087 999 – email: haminhdiu@hpu2.edu.vn. Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành408 for assessment of chess practice competency of intermediate students of Thai Nguyen College of Education, Pedagogy Master Thesis, Bac Ninh University of Physical Education and Sports. From the reality in the process of training the junior chess team 10/10 shows that opening skills still exit many errors, the orientation of opening skills is vagueand embarrassing in choosing the plan. For the above reason, the research topic “Solutions to opening skill improvement for chess team of 10-10 juvenile sport school” was conducted. 2. SOME ARGUEMENT QUESTIONS Each game of chess is divided into three stages corresponding to each different task time, but they are closely related to each other. These three stages are opening, middle and end game. The unity of the three stages is expresses. The opening is the particularly important stage because it determines the whole course of the game. [3] How should it be researched? Do we need to learn by heart and remember all kinds of games like a multiplication table? To understand this matter, we need to determine whether the variables when releasing the chess piece are the compulsory and only variable. [4] A game of chess contains many different abilities. The battles are only those that continue to be tested in the match, in each game when releasing the chess piece it can find more applicable moves. Therefore, learning by heart from the opening variables is unnecessary, even harmful because it limits the creativity of the athletes. In order to achieve a high level at Chess, the players need to concentrate on studying, learning, and importantly realizing the role of each stage in the game. The Opening is very important because it is the first stage of the game. If the opening cannot be grasped, the possibility of losing the game from the beginning is very large. The current chess training trend is as follows [5]: - The depth of the opening options - The number of options, opening systems that need to be mastered. - Regular information update about new moves in the opening from the professional magazines, Internet, etc. - The flexibility during the opening (moving from one opening to another) 3. RESEARCH METHODS Research purposes Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 409 Based on the analysis and assessment of the playing skill reality of the Chess teams’ opening forms, we have conducted a study to select the appropriate chess game in teaching and learning the Chess’s opening, which contributes to enhance the efficiency of opening skills, the quality of chess training in general and opening teaching in particular. Research tasks + Task 1: Evaluate the current status of the team and opening skills of Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School. + Task 2: Select applications and evaluate the effectiveness of opening skill solutions for Male Chess Teams Research Methods 3.1. Document summary and analysis method. This method is used to collect information from exercises, images, figures and data to withdraw practical theories as a basis for the study as well as organizing the study process. This method actually helps to systematize the knowledge and analyze the study results. 3.2. Interview method [8]. We use this method to exchange and refer to some teachers’ opinion as well as conduct interviews in the available questionnaire of teaching procedure and opening skills. Interviewees are teachers who teach chess team. 3.3. Pedagogicalobservation method This method aims to collect direct information from the participants by observing the class section and training process and strengths/weaknesses of the participants without affecting research process in order to assess the opening skills of the Male Chess Team. 3.4. Pedagogicaltest method Two-stage test method uses pre-experimental and post-experimental tests to derive the data for assessment of the participants’ opening skill and effectiveness of opening skill. 3.5. Pedagogical experiment method After identifying and selecting the suitable exercises for the purpose of applying the selected experimental exercises, we conducted an experimental comparison of Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành410 two groups, the experimental group and the control group with the same number of students. + Experimental group (na): 10 players + Control group (nb): 10 players 3.6. Statistical method The statistical parameters used in the thesis were mean, standard deviation, comparing two observed means by the t index (student) and pair correlation coefficients (r) of Brave-Pison. The topic referred to Sport Measurement by author Duong Sinh Chi (1991) [1], [9]. 4. RESULTS 4.1. Status of chess movement and opening skill of Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School In order to study the status of opening skills and the number of mistakes made by Male Chess Team in recent years, the topic analyzed the records of male chess matches at Traditional Chess Tournaments in 2016 - 2017. The analyzed content focused on the application of the opening and the mistakes in or after the opening by teams. The number of games was analyzed and the detailed results are as shown in Table 4.1. Table 1. Status of opening skill of Chess team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School NO. Opening forms 2016 2017 Σn=214 Σgames Number of mistakes Σgames Number of mistakes Σgames Number of mistakes ni % ni % ni % 1 Bishop Opening 9 2 22.22 20 6 30.00 29 8 27.59 2 Pawn Opening 3 1 33.33 0 0 0 3 1 33.33 3 French Defence 22 5 22.27 25 11 44.00 47 16 34.04 4 English Opening 23 6 26.09 26 10 38.46 49 16 32.65 5 4-knight Opening 5 1 20.00 7 2 28.57 12 3 25.00 Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 411 NO. Opening forms 2016 2017 Σn=214 Σgames Number of mistakes Σgames Number of mistakes Σgames Number of mistakes ni % ni % ni % 6 King’s gambit 2 0 0 5 1 20.00 7 1 14.28 7 Scottish game 25 7 28.00 27 9 33.33 52 16 64.00 8 2-knight Defence 7 2 28.57 8 3 37.50 15 5 33.33 Total 96 24 25.00 118 42 35.59 214 66 30.84 The results in Table 1 showed that: The number of mistakes in opening of the Male Chess Team at tournaments was very great, specifically, in the opening of males, 66 mistakes (accounting for 30.84%) were found in 214 games. Thus, there was one game making mistakes in opening every three games. This current status showed that the opening training for the Male Chess Team in localities was not good. The basic cause of the above situation was unreasonable application of opening forms and non-compliance of opening rules. So, when using, teams would make mistakes due to deficient research on this opening system. This was a high percentage, indicating that the opening skills training for the teenagers has not been done well, the players’mistakes in the game was still relatively high that would affect the results and achievements of the team. 4.2. Study in selection and assessment of the effectiveness of selected solutions to improve the opening skill for Male Chess Teams in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School 4.2.1. Practical basis of tests assessing opening skill of Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School. Through the study and analysis of professional references [2], 6 tests used in assessing the opening skills of participants were determined. These tests ensured the requirement for opening skill assessment and suitability to the Male Chess Team. To determine the basics of the tests, interviews with teachers and coaches on the level of using these tests were carried out. The results are presented in Table 2. Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành412 Table 2: Results of interviews for selection test of opening ability of Male Chess Team in 10- 10 Juvenile Sport School (n = 22) NO Test Number of chosen people Specific results Important Normal Not important n % n % n % n % 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 20 90.91 16 72,8 4 18,2 - - 2 Analyzing - assessing –planning (point) 10 45.45 8 36.36 1 4.55 1 4.55 3 Blid competition (point) 18 81.82 11 50.00 5 23.73 2 9.09 4 Determining mistakes in opening (point) 22 100 19 83.36 2 9.09 1 4.55 5 Selecting optimal option (point) 20 90.91 17 77,35 1 4.55 2 9.09 6 Finding main events for the position (point) 15 68.18 10 45.45 4 18.18 1 4.55 Table 2 showed that, in order to assess the opening skills of Male Chess Team, the majority of the opinions chosen 3 tests, including playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point), determining mistakes in opening (point), selecting optimal option (point). 4.2.2. Determine the reportability and reliability of the opening skills test of Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School. In order to select the possible and fully informative tests, the subject initially determined the reportability of the tests on the participants. The results for determining the reportability and reliability of the tests are presented in table 3. Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 413 Table 3: Reportability and reliability of opening assessment tests over Chess team performance. NO. Test r 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 0.812 2 Determining mistakes in opening (point) 0.824 3 Selecting optimal option (point) 0.834 In table 3, there were three tests: test: Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point), determining mistakes in opening (point), selecting optimal option (point) that ensured the reportability on participants (r from 0.812 – 0.834) chosen during research process. 4.2.3. Study in selection of opening types in training for Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School. By referring to the professional literature [6] and finding out the current status of opening type use in the opening training for Male Chess Teams in Hanoi National Universiy of Education2 and others such as: Hanoi National Universiy of Education, Thai Nguyen University, Hong Duc University... The topic has chosen the basic types of openings to interviewthe participants as follow: Table 4: Results of interviews for selection of opening types for Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School (n=30) No. Interviewing content Number of selectors Results Very important Important Unimportant n % n % n % n % Open game 1 Italia game 26 86.67 2 76.67 2 6.67 1 3.33 2 Hungarian game 10 33.33 5 16.67 3 10.00 2 6.67 3 Spain opening 25 83.33 21 70.00 1 3.33 3 10.00 4 Four Knights Game 24 76.67 21 70.00 2 6.67 1 3.33 Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành414 No. Interviewing content Number of selectors Results Very important Important Unimportant n % n % n % n % 5 King’s Gambit 9 30.00 5 16.67 4 13.33 0 0.00 Semi-open game 6 Caro0Kann Defence 12 40.00 6 20.00 5 16.67 1 3.33 7 Alekhine’s Defence 23 76.67 21 70.00 1 3.33 1 3.33 8 French Defence 24 80.00 21 70.00 1 3.33 2 6.67 9 Russian Game 11 36.67 6 20 4 13.33 1 3.33 10 Sicilian Defence 27 90.00 20 76.67 4 13.33 3 10.00 Close game 11 English Opening 25 88.33 22 73.33 2 6.67 1 3.33 12 Dutch Defence 13 43.33 8 26.67 3 10.00 2 6.67 13 Queen’s Gambit 26 86.67 23 76.67 2 6.67 1 3.33 14 Old Indian Defence 27 90.00 24 80.00 1 3.33 2 6.67 15 Trigorin Defence 15 50.00 9 30.00 4 13.33 2 6.67 The results from Table 4 showed that: Among 15 basic openings that were put into interview for selected use during the training course for the Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School, nine of them were selected as significant or more in all three groups (bold openings in Table 4) The remaining openingswere less selected by the coaches or said to be not evident in the assessment of the opening qualification of Male Chess Team, so they were removed in the next stage. 4.2.4. Application and efficiency determination of selected openings in opening training for Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School Pedagogical testing organization Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 415 In order to effectively carry out the selected openings in the opening training for the Male Chess Team, the pedagogical test was conducted for 4 months, including three lesson plans per week, two lessons for each plan (from February 8May 2018). Experimental subject were 20 males of the chess team of 10-10 Juvenile Sport School which were divided into 2 groups: 10 males in control group and 10 in experimental group. Both groups were trained in the same program and time. However, the opening type trained for two groups was different. In the control group, the openings that had been used by the coach, were applied, while the experimental group used the selected openings. The time of training the openings depended on view of the professionals, the opening trainingmay be most effective if conducted at the beginning of the basic part of each lesson plan. The participants were tested pedagogically through the selected tests at two points (Pre-experiment and Post-experiment time). The results of efficiency evaluation of the solutions The testing results in Pre-experiment period are presented in Table 5. Table 5: Pre-experiment results of control and experimental groups (na = nb = 10) No. Test Control group (na=10) Experimental group (nb=10) Comparision (ttable=2.101) t p 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 5.5 5.3 0.51 0.884 0.05 2 Determining mistakes in the opening (point) 5.2 5,4 0.75 0.6 0.05 3 Selecting optimal solution (point) 5,5 5,4 0.85 0.264 0.05 The results from Table 5 showed that: The difference in the performance of the two groups was not significant (tcalculation 0.05). In other words, at the Pre-experiment time, the opening skills of the two teams were similar. The Post-experiment results. From the checking results of the test (after 4 months of application of different openings in the training course for the Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School, I checked in both control groups and experimental group through the 3 selected tests. The results are shown in Table 4.6. Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành416 Table 4.6: Post-experiment results of control and experimental groups (na = nb = 10). TT Test Control group (na=10) Experimental group (nb=10) Comparasion (ttable=2.101) t p 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 5.8 7.1 0.81 3.590 0.01 2 Determining mistakes in the opening (point) 5.4 6.9 0.74 4.545 0.01 3 Selecting optimal solution (point) 5,6 6.3 0.60 2.600 0.05 The results from Table 6 showed that: The experimental results from tests in the control and experimental groups increased, but the increase in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group. This led to a significant difference in the results of the tests between the control and experimental groups (the tcalculation> ttable with p <0.01). Therefore, the opening training result for the chess team shows real effectiveness. In order to further clarify the differences in achievement of the two groups and the growth of the performance of the post-experimental groups, we compared the growth rates of the pre- and Post-experimenting results of each group. Table 7: The growth rate of the control group after the test (n=10) TT Test Pre- experiment Post- experiment W% Comparision (ttable=2.262) 1 t p 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 5.5 5.8 5.3 1.671 < 0.05 2 Determining mistakes in the opening (point) 5.2 5.4 3.7 1.224 < 0.05 3 Selecting optimal solution (point) 5,5 5,6 1.8 1.630 < 0.05 Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 417 Table 7 showed that the growth rate of post-experimental testof the control group was not high, reaching only 5.3%, 5.4% and 1.8% and from the pre- and post- experimental self-comparison method, it can be showed that t of 1.671, 1.224 and 1.630 respectively were smaller than t (2,262) which meansthere was no significant difference at p = 5%. In other words, the achievement of the control group after the experiment was not significantly different at p = 5%. Table 8: The growth rate of the experimental group after the test (n=10) No. Test Pre- experiment Post- experiment W% Comparision (ttable=2.262) 1 2 t p 1 Playing by the opening theme for 15 mins (point) 5.3 7.1 29.03 4.675 < 0.05 2 Determining mistakes in the opening (point) 5,4 6.9 24.39 3.224 < 0.05 3 Selecting optimal solution (point) 5,4 6.3 15.38 2.410 < 0.05 Table 8 shows that the growth rate of post-experimental test of the experimental group was very high, reaching 29.03%, 24.39% and 15.38% and from the pre- and post-experimental self-comparison method, it can be showed that t of 4.675 and 3.224 respectively were smaller than t (2,262) which meansthere was significant difference at p = 5%. In other words, the achievement of the experimental group after the experiment for 4 months was significantly different at p = 5% . The experimental group had a higher growth rate than the control group at the significant probability threshold (p = 5%). CONCLUSIONS - RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Conclusions: The study results of the project confirmed the effectiveness of the nine different openings in theopening training course for Male Chess Team at the 10-10 Juvenile Sport School, namely Italian Game; Spanish Opening; Four Knights Opening; Alekhine’s Defence; French Defence; Sicilian Defence; Old Indian Defence; Queen’s gambit; English Opening. The study results of the project also selected 3 tests to assess the opening skills of the Male Chess Teamin 10-10 Juvenile Sport School, includingplaying by Kỷ yếu Hội tHảo quốc tế CáC vấn đề mới trong khoa họC giáo dụC: tiếp Cận liên ngành và xuyên ngành418 the opening theme for 15 mins, Determining mistakes in the opening and Selecting optimal solution. 2. Recommendations: The study results should be applied to the practice of training the Male Chess Team in 10-10 Juvenile Sport School. The study results can be considered a methodology indication of opening training for other ages. References 1. Duong Nghiep Chi (1991), Sport Measurement, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi 2. D. Harre (1996), Principle of sport training, translator: Truong Anh Tuan, Bui The Hien, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi 3. Nguyen Hong Duong (2016), Chess textbook, , Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi. 4. Dlôtnhic B.A (1996), Chess: Science - Experience - Level , Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi. Translator: Dam Quoc Chinh. 5. Ia.B. Extrin (1995), Practical chess theory, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Translator Phung Duy Quang. 6. Ky quan (1994), Learn to Play Chess, Dong Thap Publishing House. 7. LuuQuang Hiep, Pham Thi Uyen (1995), Gymnastics andSport Physiology, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi 8. Nguyen Toan, Pham Danh Ton (1993) Methodological Argument ofGymnastics andSport, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi 1993. 9. Nguyen Duc Van (2000), Phương pháp thống kê trong TDTT, Gymnastics and Sports Publishing House, Hanoi 10. Pham Ngoc Vien, (1991) Gymnastics andSport Psychology, Hanoi Publishing House Phần 4. MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ cÁc cHỦ THỂ GIÁO Dục 4.0 419 GIẢI PHÁP NÂNG CAO KỸ NĂNG KHAI CUỘC CHO ĐỘI TUYểN CỜ VUA TRƯỜNG THể THAO THIẾU NIÊN 10/10 Tóm tắt: Nghiên cứu của các chuyên gia trong nước và quốc tế về cờ vua cho thấy, việc phát triển kỹ năng khai cuộc có thể được thực hiện bằng nhiều cách khác nhau, việc lựa chọn các phương pháp và phương tiện phù hợp là hết sức cần thiết cho việc phát triển các năng lực tư duy khai cuộc của vận động viên cờ vua. Bài viết giới thiệu kết quả thử nghiệm các bài tập và các đánh giá chuyên môn cờ vua với 10 VĐV thực nghiệm và 10 VĐV đối chứng để chứng minh tầm quan trọng của bài tập huấn luyện trong việc phát triển kỹ năng khai cuộc cờ vua. Qua đó, góp phần nâng cao hiệu quả các dạng thức khai cuộc, nâng cao ý thức rèn luyện và tự rèn luyện môn cờ vua, đồng thời nâng cao chất lượng đào tạo môn Cờ vua nói chung và huấn luyện khai cuộc nói riêng. Từ khoá: Cờ vua, Giải pháp, Khai cuộc, Đội tuyển, Tư duy.

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