Tài liệu tập huấn kiểm tra, đánh giá trong quá trình dạy học theo định hướng phát triển năng lực học sinh trong trường trung học phổ thông - Môn Tiếng Anh

 Thực trạng nói trên xuất phát từ nhiều nguyên nhân, trong đó có thể chỉ ra một số nguyên nhân cơ bản sau:

- Nhận thức về sự cần thiết phải đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá và ý thức thực hiện đổi mới của một bộ phận cán bộ quản lí, giáo viên chưa cao. Năng lực của đội ngũ giáo viên về vận dụng các phương pháp dạy học tích cực, sử dụng thiết bị dạy học, ứng dụng công nghệ thông tin - truyền thông trong dạy học còn hạn chế.

- Lí luận về phương pháp dạy học và kiểm tra đánh giá chưa được nghiên cứu và vận dụng một cách có hệ thống; còn tình trạng vận dụng lí luận một cách chắp vá nên chưa tạo ra sự đồng bộ, hiệu quả; nghèo nàn các hình thức tổ chức hoạt động dạy học, giáo dục.

- Chỉ chú trọng đến đánh giá cuối kì mà chưa chú trọng việc đánh giá thường xuyên trong quá trình dạy học, giáo dục.

 - Năng lực quản lí, chỉ đạo đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá từ các cơ quan quản lí giáo dục và hiệu trưởng các trường trung học còn hạn chế, chưa đáp ứng được yêu cầu. Việc tổ chức hoạt động đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá chưa đồng bộ và chưa phát huy được vai trò thúc đẩy của đổi mới kiểm tra đánh giá đối với đổi mới phương pháp dạy học. Cơ chế, chính sách quản lí hoạt động đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá chưa khuyến khích được sự tích cực đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá của giáo viên. Đây là nguyên nhân quan trọng nhất làm cho hoạt động đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá ở trường trung học cơ sở chưa mang lại hiệu quả cao.

- Nguồn lực phục vụ cho quá trình đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, kiểm tra đánh giá trong nhà trường như: cơ sở vật chất, thiết bị dạy học, hạ tầng công nghệ thông tin - truyền thông vừa thiếu, vừa chưa đồng bộ, làm hạn chế việc áp dụng các phương pháp dạy học, hình thức kiểm tra đánh giá hiện đại.

Nhận thức được tầm quan trọng của việc tăng cường đổi mới kiểm tra đánh giá thúc đẩy đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo đã có chủ trương tập trung chỉ đạo đổi mới kiểm tra đánh giá, đổi mới phương pháp dạy học, tạo ra sự chuyển biến cơ bản về tổ chức hoạt động dạy học, góp phần nâng cao chất lượng giáo dục trong các trường trung học; xây dựng mô hình trường phổ thông đổi mới đồng bộ phương pháp dạy học và kiểm tra đánh giá kết quả giáo dục.

 

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for a single psychiatric disorder than trying to address mental health. A research paper has a clear thesis A research paper must express a point of view, not simply report on the ideas of others. The focus of the paper is not the views of others but your opinions and interpretations. A research paper comments on the quantity and quality of sources A research paper does not simply summarize and present the ideas of others. A good research paper distinguishes between reliable and biased sources, between authoritative and questionable statistics, between fact and opinion. WHAT TO INCLUDE IN A RESEARCH PAPER Abstract - This must follow the title page on a single page of typescript (single spacing). This should be a brief summary of the dissertation which clearly indicates (a) its aims, (b) methods of research and (c) results of the research. Introduction - Brief description of the research question/topic/focus and the method of its investigation (to lead into what follows). Review - A discussion of the literature in terms of similar studies and previous explanations that have been offered. This should not become an end in itself - your review should be concerned with putting your own study in the context of other work, preferably drawing out aspects which your research was intended to explore further. Don’t forget that you will need to fully reference all works cited (used indirectly, referred to and quoted from). Make sure you note all the necessary bibliographic details when you first read the books, especially page numbers for direct quotations which should be given in the text (see ‘References’ below). It’s a real nuisance and a waste of valuable writing time to have to hunt for these in the library at a later stage. Also, use single rather than double quotation marks for short quotations and indent longer extracts (which may be single-spaced) without quotation marks. Methods - Describe the methods you chose to collect data/explore your topic and explain your choice. Include a copy of your ‘ethics protocol’ (perhaps as an appendix) and discuss how it worked out in practice. Discuss the limitations of the method(s) chosen. NB You may decide to keep your analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of your own methodology until your ‘Conclusion’. Findings - Description of what you found out, an account of the information/data you gathered. By all means make this a narrative (like a story), making use of the interesting bits from your data collection, giving more detailed stuff in one or more appendices. Discussion - Putting the findings in the context of previous research and/or theory, testing/generating explanations/hypotheses, ie have you confirmed your expectations and those of other researchers in the field or have you found something different/new/contradictory/anomalous? Can you make sense of your findings? Can you offer some sort of explanation, however tentative? What are the professional/practical/political implications of your findings? Conclusion - Summarise what you have achieved in terms of the research and its implications. Critically evaluate your research - what are its strengths and what are its weaknesses? What would you do differently? What have you learnt about the topic, about doing research and about Education itself? References - List those publications to which you have referred using the Harvard method.   The general principle applies that the reader should be able to find the original source by using the information you supply.  Appendices - Place herein material which is too bulky to include in the text but which you nonetheless think is important and to which you refer. STEPS IN WRITING UP A RESEARCH PAPER STEP 1. CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from "Religion" to "World Religion" to "Buddhism". Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials. STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION Surf the Net. For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point. Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com. To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). Check out other print materials available in the Library:     • Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs     • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries     • Government Publications, Guides, Reports     • Magazines, Newspapers     • Vertical Files     • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:     • Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.)     • Wall Street Executive Library     • Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.)     • Answers.com - an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly.     • Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.)     • Magazines and Journals (e.g. Time, National Geographic, Maclean's, Newsweek, etc.)     • Newspapers (e.g. Los Angeles Times, New York Times, USA Today, The Toronto Star, Vancouver Sun, etc.)     • International Public Library     • Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.) Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. STEP 3. STATE YOUR THESIS Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. STEP 4. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: I. INTRODUCTION - (Brief comment leading into subject matter - Thesis statement on Shakespeare) II. BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Years A. Early life in Stratford 1. Shakespeare's family a. Shakespeare's father b. Shakespeare's mother 2. Shakespeare's marriage a. Life of Anne Hathaway b. Reference in Shakespeare's Poems B. Shakespeare's works 1. Plays a. Tragedies i. Hamlet ii. Romeo and Juliet b. Comedies i. The Tempest ii. Much Ado About Nothing c. Histories i. King John ii. Richard III iii. Henry VIII 2. Sonnets 3. Other poems C. Shakespeare's Later Years 1. Last two plays 2. Retired to Stratford a. Death b. Burial c. Epitaph on his tombstone III. CONCLUSION A. Analytical summary 1. Shakespeare's early life 2. Shakespeare's works 3. Shakespeare's later years B. Thesis reworded C. Concluding statement The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative. INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY - This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION - Restate or reword your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b - meaning that the item "Accessing WWW" belongs in the following location of your outline: I. Understanding the Internet A. What is the Internet 3. How to "Surf the Net" b. Accessing WWW Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as "#" to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. CHECKLIST ONE: 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. CHECKLIST TWO: 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words? 5. Varying lengths of sentences? 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors? 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? 9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? 10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use "cannot" instead of "can't", "do not" instead of "don't"? 11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as "I think", "I guess", "I suppose" 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, ... and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918. STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: "Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?" D. LEARNING JOURNAL Students’ engagement in learning has always been a debatable issue among educators. Instead of the traditional teacher-centered classrooms, students are now encouraged to take charge of their own learning, to become autonomous. Learning journal is among the innovative practices implemented to develop students’ self-directed learning as “it situates learners at the centre of the experience, empowers and motivates them to assume responsibility for their own learning, and adopts teaching and learning strategies designed to encourage students to see themselves as active thinkers and problem-solvers” (Park, 2003, p.183). Learning journal requires students to critically think about learning experiences and gradually take the active role in their own learning. This is when “actual” learning happens. 1. Learning journal – the WHAT There are different definitions of learning journal by various authors. It is also known as learning log, reflective journal or reflective diary. Generally, a learning journal is an explicit record of learning over a period of time (Moon, 2003). 2. Learning journal – the WHY Moon (2003, p.6) listed 18 purposes of journal writing: To record experience To facilitate learning experience To support understanding and the representation of that understanding To develop critical thinking of the development of a questioning attitude To encourage metacognition To increase active involvement in, and ownership of, learning To increase ability in reflection in thinking To enhance problem solving skills As a means of assessment in formal education To enhance reflective practice For reasons of personal development and self-empowerment For therapeutic purposes or as means of supporting behavior change To enhance creativity To improve writing To improve or give “voice”; as a means of self expression To foster communication; in particular, reflective and creative interaction within a group To support planning and progress in research or a project As a means of communication between one learner and another A learning journal usually fulfills more than one purpose. Teacher should clarify the purposes of keep journals in a way that suits their students. The benefits of using a learning journal can be summarized by Park (2003, p.185) in the following table: Allowing students to make sense of their own personal histories Allowing students to assimilate and integrate new information Encouraging students to learn to think more about the knowledge they have or are acquiring Encouraging students to learn to use new knowledge (Helund et al, 1989) Promoting long-term retention of course concepts (Croxton &Berger, 2001) Increasing student test and exam grades (Connor-Greene, 2000; Hyers, 2001) Stimulating critical thinking amongst students (Hettich, 1990) Giving students opportunities to express themselves and develop effective means of self-expression (Hettich, 1990) Helping to build trust between teacher and learner (Lohman & Schwalbe, 1996) Providing formative evaluation for teacher and this help to identify te need to adjust teaching strategies (Lohman & Schwalbe, 1996) Helping learners to understand their own learning process and “learn how to learn” (Lohman & Schwalbe, 1996) Providing students with developmental feedbacl on their learning (Hettich, 1990) Helping students’ cognitive and affective development (Lohman & Schwalbe, 1996) Helping students to improve their writing by focusing on processes rather than products, emphasizing expressive and personal aspects, and serving as a record of thought and expression that is available for rereading (Yinger, 1995) It can be seen that learning journals provide intellectual spaces for thinking, promote learner autonomy, enhance reflection and learning skills, and encourage metacognition, which all together improve learning as a result. To be more specific, reflective journals can motivate students. They know what they want to achieve and why by relating what they learn with their previous experiences, improve their understanding by reading extensively and develop their thinking by building on critical evaluation of their own learning. They are also capable of knowing their own strength and weaknesses. Overall, learning journals provide information about students’ understanding of the subject matter as well as the development of their learning, their experiences with learning. This is the “real” and more meaningful learning because it the students’ “own” learning. (Moon, 2003). These help teachers to have a clearer view of students’ capability along with their needs and preferences in learning so that they can decide on the methods that suit learners’ learning styles. A learning journal, however, is not simply a descriptive account of what students learn. Instead, it is what students learn, how and why they learn and what they think about the learning process (University of Worscester, 2012). In other words, learning journals are students’ reflection of learning experiences. Due to the reflective nature of a learning journal, students are expected to think about the issue, ask questions and seek information to aid their understanding. As a result, they have a clearer picture of their learning and in a better position to make learning plans. The process of reflective learning can be illustrated in the following diagram: 3. Learning journal – the HOW A learning journal can be written on a notebook. It can also be an electronic document or recorded on tape. Students may choose whatever suitable for them. The format of a journal can be flexible (i.e: either structured or unstructured). However, the most common form of learning journals in classrooms is the paper-based one. To start with journal writing, there are certain things for teachers to think about: Planning Purpose Voluntary or compulsory? Free writing or structured? What are the demands of the class? How will it be assessed? When is the journal to be written? Evaluation Medium Format Will there be a limit on length? How often should the students write? (Moon, 2003) However effective learning journals might be, it would have negative impacts on students if they do not know what is expected of them. In order for journal writing to be conducted efficiently; therefore, guidance and necessary conditions should be provided. One way to support students is to give them some suggested questions to be answered, for example: What have I learnt? What do I think about the issue raised in the lesson/course? What do I understand so far? What do I find puzzled/difficult? What do I need to know more? How can I do it? Have I changed my opinions/values during the process/experience? How can I improve my learning/thinking in the future? What are the steps for further development? (Adapted from University of Worcester, 2012) There are also downsides of journal writing. The task requires a certain level of commitment and it would be difficult to sustain the effort for a long period of time. Moreover, students in cultures like Vietnam are not familiar with reflection and critical thinking. It is too different from their traditional way of thinking where teachers choose the learning materials and transmit knowledge and students have no other choices. Thus, it may take a lot of time to help them start working on this kind of critical task. Students’ language competency is also another factor that hinders clear expression of the learning experiences. Some students, especially low-level students, may even find it demotivating when they have to struggle trying to describe their learning in a foreign language. Last but not least, the issue of assessment appears to be very problematic in conducting the reflective task as students’ concerns and things they write down may differ when they write to be marked by teachers (i.e: they have t

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