Opportunity cost of capital: benefits of investing capital in a bank account that is forgone when that capital is invested in some other alternative.

Importance for decision making: when expected cash flows occur in different time periods.

Capital budgeting: analysis of investment alternatives involving cash flows received or paid over time.

Capital budgeting is used for decisions about replacing equipment, lease or buy, and plant acquisitions.

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Opportunity Cost of Capital and Capital BudgetingChapter ThreeCopyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/IrwinOpportunity Cost of Capital Opportunity cost of capital: benefits of investing capital in a bank account that is forgone when that capital is invested in some other alternative. Importance for decision making: when expected cash flows occur in different time periods. Capital budgeting: analysis of investment alternatives involving cash flows received or paid over time. Capital budgeting is used for decisions about replacing equipment, lease or buy, and plant acquisitions.3-2Time Value of Money A dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow, because you could invest the dollar today and have your dollar plus interest tomorrow. Value at endAlternative of one yearA. Invest $1,000 in bank account earning 5 percent per year $1,050B. Invest $1,000 in project returning $1,000 in one year $1,000Alternative B forgoes the $50 of interest that could have been earned from the bank account. The opportunity cost of selecting alternative B is $1,050.3-3Present Value Concept Since investment decisions are being made now at beginning of the investment period, all future cash flows must be converted to their equivalent dollars now. Beginning-of-year dollars (1 Interest rate) = End-of-year dollars Beginning-of-year dollars = End-of-year dollars(1 Interest rate)3-4Interest Rate Fundamentals FV = Future ValuePV = Present Valuer = Interest rate per period (usually per year) n = Periods from now (usually years) Future Value of a single flow: FV = PV (1 + r)nPresent Value of a single flow: PV = FV(1 + r)nDiscount factor = 1 (1 + r)n 3-5Interest Rate Fundamentals Present value of a perpetuity (a stream of equal periodic payments for infinite periods) PV = FV r Present value of an annuity (a stream of equal periodic payments for a fixed number of years) PV = (FV r) {1 – [1 (1 + r)n]} Multiple cash flows per year - see text.3-6NPV Basics1. Identify after-tax cash flows for each period2. Determine discount rate3. Multiply by appropriate present-value factor (single or annuity) for each cash flow. PV factor is 1.0 for cash invested now4. Sum of the present values of all cash flows = net present value (NPV)5. If NPV 0, then accept project6. If NPV < 0, then reject projectNPV is also known as discounted cash flow (DCF).See examples.3-7Some Factors are Difficult to Quantify, but Important to ConsiderConsider the example of Sue Koerner’s considering returning to school to get an MBA degree.How would you account for the additional utility Sue would receive from the prestige of earning an advanced degree?Could you apply the concept of an indifference point?What other approaches might be helpful?3-8Capital Budgeting - Warnings 1. Discount after-tax cash flows, not accounting earnings Cash can be invested and earn interest. Accounting earnings include accruals that estimate future cash flows.2. Include working capital requirements Consider cash needed for additional inventory and accounts receivable.3. Include opportunity costs but not sunk costs Sunk costs are not relevant to decisions about future alternatives.4. Exclude financing costs The firm’s opportunity cost of capital is included in the discount rate.3-9Adjustment for RiskDiscount risky projects at a higher discount rate than safe projects = Risk-free rate of interest on government bonds + Risk premium associated with project i = Risk-adjusted discount rate for project i (Determining the appropriate discount rate is covered in a corporate finance course. In most problems in the managerial accounting course, the discount rate is given.) Use expected cash flows rather than highest or lowest cash flow that could occur Example: If cash flow could be $100 or $200 with equal probability, then expected cash flow is $150.3-10Adjustment for Inflation If inflation exists in the economy, then the discount rate should be adjusted for inflation.rnominal = nominal interest rate with inflation i = inflation raterreal = real interest rate if no inflation = riskless rate + risk premium (1 + rnominal) = (1 + rreal) (1 + i ) Solving: rnominal = rreal + i + (rreal i )1. Restate future cash flows into nominal dollars (after inflation)2. Discount nominal cash flows with nominal interest rate3-11After-Tax Cash Flow(ATCF) - Concept Determine cash flows after taxes On the firm’s income tax return, they cannot fully deduct the cost of a capital investment in the year purchased. Instead firms depreciate the investment over several years at the rate allowed by the tax law.Time Cash flowBeginning of project Cash to acquire assetsFuture years Depreciation deduction on tax return reduces future tax payments (depreciation tax shield) 3-12After Tax Cash Flow (ATCF) - Definitions t = Tax rate (tax refund rate if negative income) R = Revenue in one year (assume all cash) E = All cash expenses in one year (excludes depreciation) D = Depreciation allowed in one year on income tax returnTax expense for one year TAX = (R - E - D) tAfter-tax cash flow for year ATCF = R - E - Tax = R - E - (R - E - D) t = (R - E)(1 - t) + Dt 3-13ATCF - Equivalent Methods1. Separate tax computation ATCF = (Cash flow before tax) - TAX = (R - E) - (R - E - D) t2. Depreciation tax shield ATCF = (After-tax cash flow without depreciation) + Depreciation tax shield = (R - E) (1 - t) + D t3. Financial accounting income after tax and add back non-cash expenses ATCF = (Accounting income after tax) + (Non-cash expenses) = (R - E - D) (1 - t) + D3-14Alternative Capital Budgeting MethodsMethods that consider time value of money:1. Discounted cash flow (DCF), also known as net present value (NPV) method 2. Internal rate of return (IRR)Methods that do not consider time value of money:3. Payback method4. Accounting rate of return on investment (ROI)3-15Alternative: Payback Method Payback = the time required until cash inflows from a project equal the initial cash investment. Rank projects by payback and accept those with shortest payback periodAdvantages of payback method: Simple to explain and computeDisadvantages of payback method:Ignores time value of money (when cash is received within payback period)Ignores cash flows beyond end of payback period3-16Alternative: Accounting Return (ROI) Average annual accounting income from project Average annual investment in the project= Return on investment (ROI)Average annual investment = (Initial investment + Salvage value at end) 2Advantages of ROI method: Simple to explain and compute using financial statementsDisadvantages of ROI method:Ignores time value of money (when cash is received within payback period)Accounting income is often not equal to cash flow3-17Alternative: Internal Return (IRR) Internal rate of return (IRR) is the interest rate that equates the present value of future cash flows to the cash outflows.By definition: PV = FV (1 + irr)Solution for a single cash flow: irr = (FV PV) - 1Comparison of IRR and DCF/NPV methodsBoth consider time value of cash flowsIRR indicates relative return on investmentDCF/NPV indicates magnitude of investment’s returnIRR can yield multiple rates of returnIRR assumes all cash flows reinvested at project’s constant IRRDCF/NPV discounts all cash flows with specified discount rate3-18Capital Budgeting in PracticeSee Table 3-11 DCF/NPV has become the most commonly used capital budgeting method for evaluating new and replacement projects in large US corporations.3-19

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