Determinants influencing the quality of accounting human resources: The case of Hanoi, Vietnam

This study is conducted to investigate the impact levels of determinants on the

quality of accounting human resources in the Accounting service firms in Hanoi.

Data were collected from getting 145 questionnaires from accounting service firms

doing businesses in Hanoi. Based on the data collected, we use Cronbach’s Alpha,

EFA and run regression model for knowing the impact levels of each independent

variable on dependent variable of the quality of accounting human resources. The

results show that three determinants including Business culture (BC), Income (I) and

Education and training (ET) have positive relationships with the quality of

accounting human resources. Based on the findings, some recommendations are

given for improving the quality of accounting human resources of accounting service

firms doing business in the context of Hanoi.

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ing accountants have received bonuses (holidays, Tet holidays, company founding days), welfare (traveling in the beginning of the spring, vacation) every year, however, the level of receiving is not much. Accounting accountants in accounting service firms in Hanoi often work concentrated in the company's office, both working independently and working in teams. In addition to working time at the company office, the teams also have to go on business trips or work at the customer's production and business locations. The ability to develop jobs and careers of accountants in accounting services is quite good. The company's customers are diversified in business lines, each business has its own characteristics, requires the process of handling different accounting jobs. Accounting Services Firms in Hanoi have developed internal rules and regulations, contributing to creating an atmosphere at the workplace in accordance with the characteristics of the accounting service industry. When the income level that the accounting human resources receives is commensurate with the merit and work that makes them comfortable and effective, it will attract the dedication and wisdom of the people. Therefore, enterprises' managers of accounting services firms need to pay more attention, contributing to the use of effective accounting human resources, as a competitive factor in the process of sustainable development. Accounting human resources are educated and trained quite well in universities, colleges and accounting service firms. However, an accounting department of human resources has not received the expected level, so there is still a phenomenon of accounting human resources for job jumps. 723 Business culture Culture is the "sanctions" applied when there are cultural violations affect the results of production and business, brand, reputation or image of the firm. Business Culture has a very important position and role in the development of firm. If the firm lacks cultural, linguistic, documentary and information (cultural knowledge) elements, it is difficult for businesses to stand firm and survive. In the success of every business, there is based on the personal relationship of the person of the leader and the staff. Therefore, in addition to objective factors such as creating markets, consumer benefits, the integration process into the regional and world economies. It is impossible not to care about business culture. Business culture management is better business governance. Education and training The training programs of universities have provided the necessary knowledge to do accounting. However, the training program has not been appropriately distributed between theory and practice; there is no good combination between basic knowledge, professional skills and skills; not yet developed the necessary skills. In addition, Vietnamese accounting standards are compiled according to the content of international accounting standards (IFRS), however, the IFRS teaching of universities is currently not built and implemented properly, synchronized. At Accounting Services Firms, the accounting human resources work mainly directly, providing accounting services to customers. Accounting Human Resources are relatively trained with accounting expertise. The level of accounting human resources is relatively equal. Most Accounting Services firms in Hanoi have developed and implemented training programs for accounting human resources. Although the content of the training program is different between firms, firms often have training methods such as: (i) For new accounting human resources: Retraining right after entering the company, assigning suitable working groups to learn from each other. (ii). For former accounting human resources: Organizing short-term training in the form of the company organizing training courses or sending to update classes organized by the VAA, Vietnam Association of Certified Public Accountants (VACPA)... Training, retraining and remuneration are one of the necessary measures to attract and retain experienced accountants. 5. Recommendations Based on the results, some recommendations are given in order to improve the quality of accounting human resources, as below: 724 For business culture Business culture, working environment in Accounting Services Firms need to be carefully built. Firms need to create a corporate culture, based on 2-3 common values that accounting human resources agree on, or basic rules that can help nurture and accelerate this process. Firms design their own rules to facilitate the environment work, encouraging accounting human resources to implement creative ideas and benefit to firms. Supervisors and managers should have good competence, scientific management methods as well as timely and fairly support employees. For income of accounting human resources The level of salaries for accountants must ensure satisfactory living, further learning, thus attract high-quality accountants to work for Accounting Services Firms. In the most cases, salary is the most effective driving force that has been applied so far. Types of labor remuneration play a key role in motivating workers to work for and create value for the firm. Therefore, it is necessary to: (i) Develop an effective performance assessment system to create the firm basis for the remuneration according to the level of work completion and the work performed; thus maintain the current accounting human resources, as well as attract and retain expert accountants, especially job placement. A high salary and recognition by the superiors can make accountants stick with Accounting Services Firms for a long period of time. (ii) Have a reward system that is written in documents for each reward level, celebrate a recognition ceremony to show support and consensus among employees, thus encourage creativity; (iii) Facilitate the help for accountants to study and improve their qualifications to meet up the requirements of firms, market demands and adapt to life. For education and training First, For universities (i), Applying student - centered approach to accounting training The learner-centered approach (SCL) is an educational approach that focuses on learners and their needs instead of relying on teacher input. The benefits provided by the SCL method in improving the learning process are not controversial, however, to successfully apply, it is necessary to remove barriers or challenges from many internal factors of learning process. In order for the SCL training method to be 725 successful requires the contribution of learners, infrastructure, training facilities, and especially teachers (Pham, 2017). (ii), Innovating university-level accounting teaching according to the approach of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) Teachers need to change the approach in teaching to teach principles rather than repeating the rules set out in the accounting regime: (i) Changing from teaching / learning attitudes according to repetition rules for teaching/learning attitude according to problem detection, (ii) Determining the level of detail of the teaching topic, (iii) Adjusting the assessment process (Nguyen, 2017). Second, For Accounting Services Firms The importance of education and training is the leading factor in developing the quality of accounting human resources is very necessary for long-term development strategy of Accounting Services Firms: + Building a system of managing knowledge, skills and professional training levels for accounting human resources. + Develop standards to assess the quality of knowledge and skills of professional training for accounting human resources. + Determine the standards for instructor at the firms and the instructors at the business need to reach a certain level of careers. References 1. Do, D.T., Truong, D.D., Le, T.T. (2019). Quality of Human Resources via Accountant’s Intellectual Competence in Multinational Enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam; International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability, 4(1), 115-129. 2. Gill Palmer, Howard F.Gospel (1993). British Industrial Relations, Wollongong University, New South Wales, Australia 3. Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (2006). Multivariate data analysis, Prentice-Hall, International, Inc. 4. Hoang, T., & Chu, N.M.N (2008). Analysis of research data with SPSS, Hong Duc Publishing House. 5. Le, T.M.L. (2009). Developing human resources in Vietnam’s small and medium enterprises in the process of economic integration, Doctor Thesis, National Economic University. 6. Mai, T.H.M. (2013). Vietnam Accounting Services, limitations to overcome, Accounting and Auditing journal, 13, 7-9. 726 7. Nguyen, C.P. (2017). Challenges and Solutions in Accounting Training in Applying IFRS, Proceeding of Scientific Seminar on Research and Training of Accounting and Auditing by Vietnamese Universities International Standards, National Economics University, 31-38. 8. Nguyen, T.H.C. (2013). Improving the quality of human resource in Vietnam’s timber processing enterprises, Doctor Thesis, National Economic University. 9. Pham, D. C. (2017). Application of method that learners are key concerns in financial accounting training: foreign experience and lessons for Vietnam, Scientific Seminar of Researching and training accountants, auditors in Vietnam’ universities following International Standard, National Economics University, 21-29. 10. Phung, R. (2008). Quality of human resources: The problem needs a synchronous solution, Vien Dong Junior College, Ho Chi Minh City. 11. Susan, M.H. (1987). Human Resource Basic, Career, Jobs; Free Human Resource Policies, Samples; Human Resource Job Descriptions; http: Resource. 12. Tran, M.D. & Do, D.T. (2019). Quality of Personnel via Accountants’ Physical and Mental Strengths in Multinational Firms in Vietnam, The 15th Conference of International Federation of East Asian Management Associations, “Innovation Management for the Sustainable and Inclusive Devlopment in a Transforming Asia”, Kyoto Japan, 2019.

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