Enhancing efficiency high school education by investigation of the relationship between construal - Level of learning and alliance with study plan for high school students

In this article, using the Construal-Level Theory (Trope et Liberman, 2010), we measured the construal level of high school students' learning; and validated the measurement scale of the alliance with the study plan of high school students in the Vietnam context including 3 dimensions: Attitude (3 items), Intention (3 items) and Behavior (5 items) following a quantitative survey of 304 students from 2 high schools in Danang, Vietnam. The result showed that the lower the construal level of high school students' learning (concrete construal level) is, the greater the alliance with the study plan is and vice versa. At a low psychological distance, students would be more allied with the study plan, so will achieve better exam results. Therefore, this gives us the idea of proposing new educational approaches to the educational programs, in order to lower the construal level of learning (by shortening psychological distances)

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Nguyen Duy Phuong, Ha Xuan Hung, Bui Hoang Ngoc/ MICA 2018 Proceedings 352 Appendix A. Situations to measure construal levels of high school students' learning In order to best prepare for the Graduation examination, you have set yourself a serious study plan.  Situation 1. As the exam will take place in the distant future (in 3 years), at the beginning of the 10 th grade, you have made some deviations from your study plan.  Situation 2. A group of friends organizes an excursion, you are invited. Still, you have to give up some extra lessons to participate to it. You were not very comfortable but you still took part in the excursion because this group of friends is very famous at school.  Situation 3. It's time to go to an important class. It's pouring rain, all means of transport are not able to pick you up. You can walk but the road is far enough.  Situation 4. Despite some discrepancies from this study plan, your results are still good. You think that this study plan is no longer really necessary. Appendix B. Measurement scale of construal levels of high school students' learning  Situation 1. Questions “Why” Why should I always respect this study plan? 1WHY1 Why should I always hang on to my studies? 1WHY2 Why do I have good grades even if I have made discrepancies in my study plan? 1WHY3 Questions “How” How can I best respect my study plan? 1HOW1 How to respect my study plan every day? 1HOW2 How can this plan of study not interfere with my daily life? 1HOW3 Assertions I am always looking for reasons to convince me to respect my study plan whatever the Graduation examination takes place in 3 years. 1IDEN1 I am always looking for means to respect my study plan during these 3 years. 1IDEN2  Situation 2. Questions “Why” Why should I make discrepancies in my study plan because of the invitation of this group of friends? 2WHY1 Why did this group of friends interrupt my study plan? 2WHY2 Why did not I refuse the invitation of this group of friends? 2WHY3 Questions “How” How to refuse the invitation of this group of friends? 2HOW1 How can this group of friends know that I have important courses not to miss? 2HOW2 How to refuse the invitation without influencing our friendship? 2HOW3 Assertions I weigh the pros and cons between going to classes and accepting the invitation to maintain good relations with this group of friends. 2IDEN1 I always look for means to respect my study plan when I'm invited, regardless of relationships with others. 2IDEN2  Situation 3. Questions “Why” Why walk far to go to class in the rain? 3WHY1 Why not work at home, when I'm not able to go out? 3WHY2 Why not choose another course location near the house? Questions “How” How to go to class in this context? 3HOW1 How not to go out while grasping the contents of this course? 3HOW2 Nguyen Duy Phuong, Ha Xuan Hung, Bui Hoang Ngoc/ MICA 2018 Proceedings 353 How to have the contents of this course? 3HOW3 Assertions I have to convince myself to go out in order to maintain my study plan. 3IDEN1 I am looking for means to overcome this difficulty to be able to respect my study plan. 3IDEN2  Situation 4. Questions “Why” Why respect my study plan while my study results remain very good? 4WHY1 Why do I still have good grades despite a gap in my study plan? 4WHY2 Why not try to break my study plan? 4WHY3 Questions “How” How can I always remember my study plan while my study results are still very good? 4HOW1 How to always strictly follow my study plan? 4HOW2 How can I always remind myself that I am preparing for the exam when my study results remain very good? 4HOW3 Assertions I always think about why I have to respect my study plan even though my study results are still very good. 4IDEN1 I am always looking for means to respect my study plan even though my study results are still very good because my goal is to be able to enter a university. 4IDEN2 Appendix C. Measurement scale of attitude, intention and behavior alliance with high school students' study plan (in preparation for Graduation examination)  Alliance behavior with the study plan Original scale Scale retained in this search Coding Do you ever forget to take your medication? [Mars 1, Thompson et al., 2000] Sometimes I forget to respect my study plan for this Graduation examination. ALLI1 Are you careless at times about taking your medication? [Mars 2, Thompson et al., 2000] I sometimes neglect to respect my study plan for this important exam. ALLI2 When you feel better, do you sometimes stop taking your medication? [Mars 3, Thompson et al., 2000] I have already stopped my study plan because I find my results better. ALLI3 Sometimes if you feel worse when you take the medication, do you stop taking it? [Mars 4, Thompson et al., 2000] I have already stopped my study plan because I find my results worse. ALLI4 I always have gaps in my treatment. I am constantly deviating from my study plan while preparing for this important exam. ALLI5 I strictly follows my treatment*. I strictly follows my plan of study to prepare for this important exam *. ALLI6  Alliance attitude with the study plan Original scale Scale retained in this search Coding I take my medication only when I am sick. [Mars 5, Thompson et al., 2000] I respect my study plan only when I am forced to respect it. ALLI7 It is unnatural for my mind and body to be controlled by medication. [Mars 6, Thompson et al., 2000] I feel nervous working to respect my study plan to prepare for this important exam. ALLI8 Medication makes me feel tired and sluggish. [Mars 10, Thompson et al., 2000] Complying with this plan of study for this important exam hurts me. ALLI9 Nguyen Duy Phuong, Ha Xuan Hung, Bui Hoang Ngoc/ MICA 2018 Proceedings 354 Alliance intention with the study plan Original scale Scale retained in this search Coding I intend to follow my diet even more seriously*. I intend to respect my study plan even more seriously to prepare for this important exam*. ALLI10 I intend to stop following my treatment. I intend to stop this study plan for this important exam. ALLI11 It is very likely that I will continue to follow my treatment*. It is very likely that I will continue to respect my study plan for this important exam*. ALLI12 Appendix D. Results of ANOVA – Construal levels of learning and Alliance with the study plan Nguyen Duy Phuong, Ha Xuan Hung, Bui Hoang Ngoc/ MICA 2018 Proceedings 355 Appendix E. ANOVA Results - Construal Levels of Learning and Classes

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