Lý thuyết & bài tập liên từ - Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang (Có đáp án)

Liên từ trong tiếng anh: Cấu tạo, cách dùng & bài tập áp dụng

Liên từ là từ dùng để nối hai phần, hai mệnh đề trong một câu. Sau đây là một vài ví dụ về liên từ:

Liên từ đẳng lập: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, soLiên từ phụ thuộc: although, because, since, unless. Ta

có thể xem xét liên từ từ 3 khía cạnh

1. Cấu tạo của Liên từ gồm 3 dạng chính:

 Từ đơn ví dụ: and, but, because, although

 Từ ghép (thường kết thúc bằng as hoặc that)ví dụ: provided that, as long as, in order that

 Tương liên (đi cùng với trạng từ hoặc tính từ)ví dụ: so.that

2. Hai chức năng cơ bản của Liên từ:

 Liên từ đẳng lập: được dùng để nối 2 phần trong một câu có vai trò ngữ pháp độc lập với

nhau. Đó có thể là các từ đơn hoặc các mệnh đề. Ví dụ:

- Jack and Jill went up the hill.- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.

 Liên từ phụ thuộc: được dùng để nối mệnh đề phụ thuộc với mệnh đề chính của câu. Ví dụ: - I

went swimming althoug

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GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 1 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Lý thuyết & bài tập liên từ (có kèm đáp án) Sưu tầm và Biên soạn bởi cô NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Liên từ trong tiếng anh: Cấu tạo, cách dùng & bài tập áp dụng Liên từ là từ dùng để nối hai phần, hai mệnh đề trong một câu. Sau đây là một vài ví dụ về liên từ: Liên từ đẳng lập: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, soLiên từ phụ thuộc: although, because, since, unless. Ta có thể xem xét liên từ từ 3 khía cạnh 1. Cấu tạo của Liên từ gồm 3 dạng chính:  Từ đơn ví dụ: and, but, because, although  Từ ghép (thường kết thúc bằng as hoặc that)ví dụ: provided that, as long as, in order that  Tương liên (đi cùng với trạng từ hoặc tính từ)ví dụ: so...that 2. Hai chức năng cơ bản của Liên từ:  Liên từ đẳng lập: được dùng để nối 2 phần trong một câu có vai trò ngữ pháp độc lập với nhau. Đó có thể là các từ đơn hoặc các mệnh đề. Ví dụ: - Jack and Jill went up the hill.- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.  Liên từ phụ thuộc: được dùng để nối mệnh đề phụ thuộc với mệnh đề chính của câu. Ví dụ: - I went swimming although it was cold. 3. Vị trí của liên từ trong tiếng anh  Liên từ đẳng lập: luôn luôn đứng giữa 2 từ hoặc 2 mệnh đề mà nó liên kết  Liên từ phụ thuộc: thường đứng đầu mệnh đề phụ thuộc. * Các tình huống giao tiếp tiếng anh thông dụng  Liên từ đẳng lập  and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 2 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Một liên từ đẳng lập nối các phần có vai trò ngữ pháp tương đương hoặc ngang bằng nhau trong câu. Một liên từ đẳng lập cho thấy các thành phần mà nó liên kết có cấu trúc và tầm quan trọng tương tự nhauHãy xem những ví dụ sau – 2 thành tố trong ngoặc vuông được nối với nhau bởi một liên từ đẳng lập  I like [tea] and [coffee].  [Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee]. Liên từ đẳng lập luôn đứng giữa các từ hoặc mệnh đề mà nó liên kết.Khi một liên từ đẳng lập nối các mệnh đề độc lập thì luôn có dấu phẩy đứng trước liên từ  I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university. Tuy nhiên, nếu các mệnh đề độc lập ngắn và tương tự nhau thì dấu phẩy không thực sự cần thiết:  She is kind so she helps people. Khi “and” đứng trước từ cuối cùng trong một dãy liệt kê, thì có thể có dấu phẩy hoặc không  He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.  He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum. Có một mẹo nhỏ để nhớ 7 liên từ ngắn và đơn giản.F A N B O Y SFor And Nor But Or Yet So  Liên từ phụ thuộc Phần lớn số liên từ là liên từ phụ thuộc. Một số liên từ phổ biến như  after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while Liên từ phụ thuộc nối mệnh đề phụ với mệnh đề chính Hãy xem ví dụ sau: Mệnh đề chính liên từ phụ thuộc mệnh đề phụ Ram went swimming although it was raining Một mệnh đề phụ thuộc “phụ thuộc” vào mệnh đề chính. Nó không thể đứng một mình như là câu độc lập được. Hãy tưởng tượng xem nếu ai đó nói với bạn “ Hello! Although it was raining”, bạn sẽ hiểu như thế nào? Vô nghĩa! Nhưng mệnh đề chính (hoặc mệnh đề độc lập) thì có thể đứng riêng một mình. Bạn sẽ hiểu rõ ý nếu có người nói rằng: “Hello! Ram went swimming.”Liên từ phụ thuộc luôn luôn đứng ở đầu mệnh đề phụ thuộc. Nó “giới thiệu” mệnh đề phụ thuộc. Tuy nhiên, mệnh đề phụ thuộc đôi khi cũng có thể đứng sau hoặc trước mệnh đề chính. Do vậy trong tiếng Anh cũng có thể có hai cấu trúc sau: Ram went swimming although it was raining.Although it was raining, Ram went swimming Kiến thức nâng cao về Liên Từ trong tiếng anh: Ngoài 2 loại liên từ (Liên từ phụ hợp-ordinating conjunction và Liên từ tương quan-correlative conjunctions) chúng ta đã học ở Level 250-500, hôm nay tôi muốn cung cấp thêm một loại liên từ nữa- chủ điểm hay xuất hiện nhất trong luyện thi TOEIC. Liên từ này được gọi là Liên từ tương hợp (Subordinating Conjunctions). Sau đây là một số loại liên từ tương hợp. Chú ý rằng, sau những liên từ này là một mệnh đề. Đọc thêm về Câu điều kiện trong tiếng anh GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 3 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98  Diễn tả thời gian  While: she was eating while her husband was fixing his car When: when you develop products, it is important to conduct a market research Since: he has served this company since he graduated Before: Before you leave the office, remember to turn off all the lights After: After he returned to the office, he got a private phone call As soon as: As soon as I come home, please let her know  Diễn tả lý do  Because: Because it was submitted late, the report was returned  Since: Since you left him, he is now addicted to wine  As: The economy added 10,000 jobs in the second quarter as ber domestic demands encouraged companies to hire more workers Diễn tả sự nhượng bộ: Although/ though/even he is inexperienced, he is still appreciated by the whole staff  Diễn tả điều kiện:  If/once: If you want to see him, call me any time  Unless: Unless he calls, I will leave right away  As long as (miễn là): he agrees to take the job as long as the salary is high  Provided that/ providing: I will lend him money provided that he pays me on time Diễn tả mục đích: She buys a lovely doll so that/in order that her daughter can play with it at home Diễn tả sự đối lập: While/whereas: she keeps spending much money while her parents try to earn one single penny. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 4 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98  Một số liên từ thường gặp khi học tiếng anh: Liên từ đẳng lập ( Liên từ song song ) Liên từ phụ thuộc ( Liên từ chính phụ) AND Ví dụ: She is a good and loyal wife. I have many books and notebooks. BOTH ... AND Ví dụ: She is both good and loyal. hoc tieng anh They learn both English and French. AS WELL AS Ví dụ: He has experience as well as knowledge. NO LESS THAN Ví dụ: You no less than he are very rich. NOT ONLY ... BUT (ALSO) Ví dụ: He learns not only English but but (also) Chinese. I like playing not only tennis but (also) football. OR Ví dụ: Hurry up, or you will be late. EITHER...OR Ví dụ: He isn't either good or kind. I don't have either books or notebooks. NEITHER ... NOR Ví dụ: He drinks neither wine nor beer. She has neither husband nor children. BUT Ví dụ: He is intelligent but very lazy. She is ugly but hard-working. THEN Ví dụ: You have eaten nothing; then you must be very hungry. The plant looks very faded; then it hasn't been watered for long. CONSEQUENTLY Ví dụ: You didn't work hard for this term; consequently, he failed the exam. FOR Ví dụ: He will surely succeed, for (because) he works hard. WHEREAS Ví dụ: He learns hard whereas his friends don't. Wise men love truth whereas fools avoid it. WHILE Ví dụ: Don't sing while you work. Don't talk while you eat. BESIDES, MOREOVER Ví dụ: We have to study hard at school; besides, we must pay attention to physical exercise. He stole two watches; moreover, he broke the window. SO Ví dụ: He is a good teacher; so, he is very popular with students. It rained very hard; so, we didn't go out that night. HENCE Ví dụ: I had not money about me; hence I did not buy the book. He came late; hence, he missed the first part of the lesson. - Liên từ nối mệnh đề (như trạng ngữ): a. Thời gian (Time): AFTER Ví dụ: A man shoud take a little rest, after he has worked hard. The ship was checked carefully after she had been built. AS Ví dụ: He came her, as the clock struck six. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 5 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 HOWEVER Ví dụ: He is a very lazy student; however, he can pass all the exams easily. It was raining very hard; however, we went out without umbrellar. NEVERTHELESS Ví dụ: She studies very hard; nevertheless, she always gets bad marks. STILL, YET Ví dụ: I speak to you peaceably; still/yet you will not listen. She says she does not love me, yet, I still love her. OR, ELSE, OTHERWISE Ví dụ: We have to work hard, or/else/otherwise we will fail the exam. ONLY Ví dụ: Go where you like; only do not stay here. THEREFORE Ví dụ: He violated the traffic signs, therefore he was punished. They left as the bell rang.. AS SOON AS Ví dụ: I will phone you as soon as I come home. They will get married as soon as they finish university. BEFORE Ví dụ: Don't count your chickens before they are hatchd. He talks as if he were very wise. học tiếng anh giao tiếp Ví dụ: He has been very weak, since he was taken sick. AS LONG AS Ví dụ: No one can harm us, as long as we remain friends. I will lend you some money as long as you promise to pay me back. UNTIL Ví dụ: People do not know the value of health until they lose it. WHEN Ví dụ: When you visit this country, you should bring thick winter clothes. WHILE Ví dụ: Make hay while the sun shines. Step while you dance. b. Nơi chốn (Places): WHERE Ví dụ: The bed room is the best place where I do my homework. WHEREVER Ví dụ: His mother follows him wherever he goes. I will go wherever to find a suitable job for me. c. Thể cách (Manner): AS Ví dụ: Do as I told you to do. AS IF Ví dụ: He talks as if he knew everything about her. He dances as if he were a professional dancer. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 6 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 d. So sánh (Comparisons): AS Ví dụ: He is as tall as his brother. This bag is as expensive as that one. THAN Ví dụ: She is more beautiful than her sister. She looks fatter than his friend. e. Lí do (Reasons): AS Ví dụ: As it rained very hard, we stopped they games. BECAUSE Ví dụ: We could not pass the test because we didn't learn hard. I didn't meet her because she had left earlier. SINCE Ví dụ: I must go since she has telephoned three times. f. Mục đích (Purposes): THAT Ví dụ: I work hard that I may succeed in life. SO THAT Ví dụ: We went very early so that we could catch the last bus. IN ORDER THAT Ví dụ: We learn French in order to study in France . g. Điều kiện (Conditions) : IF Ví dụ: I will phone him if I have his phone number. UNLESS (IF NOT) Ví dụ: You will be late unless you set off now. Unless you work hard, you will not pass the exam. PROVIDED THAT Ví dụ: I will pardon him provided that he acknowledge his fault. You can enter the room provided that you have the ticket.. IN CASE Ví dụ: You should take an GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 7 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 umbrella in case it rains. Please take a map with you in case (that) you may get lost. h. Sự tương phản, trái ngược: ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH Ví dụ: Though/even though /although it rained hard, I went out with her. AS Ví dụ: Rich as he is, his isn't ever happy. EVEN IF Ví dụ: Even if my watch is right, we will be too late. NOT WITH STANDING THAT Ví dụ: He is poor not with standing that he works very hard. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 8 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 BÀI TẬP Bài tập 1: Điền vào chỗ trống với các từ sau: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when. 1. Things were different .. I was young. 2. I do it I like it. 3. Let us wait here .. the rain stops. 4. You cannot be a lawyer ..you have a law degree. 5. She has not called she left last week. 6. I saw him leaving an hour . two ago. 7. This is an expensive very useful book. 8. We were getting tired .. we stopped for a rest. 9. He was angry . he heard when happened. 10. Walk quickly . you will be late. 11. He had to retire of ill health. 12. We will go swimming next Sunday .. it's raining. 13. I heard a noise I turned the light on. 14. Would you like a coffee tea? Bài tập 2: Viết lại những câu sau đây dùng liên từ thích hợp 1. We know him. We know his friends. 2. The coat was soft. The coat was warm. 3. It is stupid to do that. It is quite unnecessary. 4. I wanted to go. He wanted to stay. 5. Your arguments are b. They don’t convince me. 6. You can go there by bus. You can go there by train. 7. I was feeling tired. I went to bed when I got home. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 9 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Bài tập 3: Điền vào chỗ trống bằng những liên từ thích hợp: 1. I’ll come and see you.I leave for Moscow. 2. He will tell you..you get home. 3. I can’t express my opinionI know the fact. 4. We started very early..we should miss the train. 5. He will stay here..you come. 6. ..he tried hard, he wasn’t successful. 7. He worked late last night..he might be free to go away tomorrow. 8. The room is .small..we can’t all get in. 9. .you had left earlier, you would have caught the train. 10. The road seems longer.I thought. 11. it rained hard, we played the match. 12. ..you may go, he won’t forget you. Bài tập 4: Xếp các từ nối phù hợp sau: after, before, when, while, until, as soon as, since, as if. 1. I usually have a snack _____ going to bed. 2. He had a heart attack _____ watching a video. 3. You look _____ you’ve seen the ghost. 4. How many jobs have you had _____ leaving school? 5. Have a rest every hour or so _____ driving long distances. Bài tập 5: Viết lại các câu sau bằng cách sử dụng các từ and, but, so, or. 1. It was raining. I felt cold. I went indoors. 2. He loves her. She loves him. They are getting married. 3. I can paint the lounge. I can clean the fridge. I can’t do both. 4. Mr Downes seemed poor. In fact, he had a lot of money. 5. Tim is sleeping. You can’t speak to him at the moment. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 10 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Bài tập 6: Chuyển đổi các câu sau: 1. Although Nam is not an intelligent student, he can learn very fast. => Despite / In spite of ______________________________________. 2. Because Hoa was rich, she could buy that house. => Because of _____________________________. 3. Because the rain was so heavy, I couldn't go to school. => Because of _________________________________. 4. His father asked him to go stay at home because he was sick. => Because of ______________________________________. 5. Because there was an accident, I was late. => Because of _______________________. 6. She failed the University entrance exam because her grades were bad. => Because of _____________________________________________. 7. Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful business man. => Despite ________________________________________________________. 8. Because of the cheap price, my wife insists on buying the Tivi. => Because __________________________________________. 9. Although it was raining heavily, we still went to school. => Despite / In spite of ____________________. 10. Because I studied hard, I passed the exam. => Because of ________________________. GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 11 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Bài tập 7: Chọn đáp án phù hợp 1.He is very old, ________ he still works very hard. A. but B.if C.when D.as 2. ________ you are dismissed. A. Neither you go nor B. Either you go or C. Whether you go or D. Both you go and 3. They had camped once before, ________ they knew what to take. A. because B. now C. so D. since 4. Why these things happened was ________ the driver had been careless. A. because of B. owing to C. due to D. that 5. Although, it's raining, ________are still working in the fields. A. they B. but they C. and they D. so they 6. _______we have satisfied you, you have no grounds of complaint. A. So B. Since that C. Now that D. By now. 7. Write clearly ________ your teacher can understand .you correctly. A. since B. for C. because D. so that 8.You'll miss the train _______ you hurry up. A. unless B. as C. if D. until 9. Francis did the task________ his brother. A. as good as B. as better as C. as well as D. as best as 10.The size of the audience, ________ we had expected, was well over twenty thousand. A. as B. what C. that D. whom 11.I thought he hated the TV .You are right, ________ he still watches the program. A. yet B. besides C. also D. then 12. It looks ____ it's going to rain. A. that B. as C. as if D. like that GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 12 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 13.________ to New York, her father has not heard from her. A. Because she went B. After she went C. When she went D. Since she went 14._______he daydreamed, Peter saw figures in the sky. A. Until B. Since C. While D. During 15. We arrived at the station ________ the train had left. A. after B. before C. since D. when 16. ________ he was in poor health, he worked just as hard as everyone else. A. But B. Although C. Even if D. If 17. Give me one more minute ________ I'll have finished. A. so B. until C. and D. when 18. The worker hunted for jobs in New York for months, ________ he could not find any work. A. and B. yet C. or D. and but 19. Hurry up, ________ you'll be late. A. or B. and C. so D. yet 20. Do not make the same mistake ________ I did. A. so B. as C. like D. that 21. My sister is expecting me, ________ I must be off now. A. however B. or C. so D. otherwise 22. We should pay attention ________ to industry ________ to agriculture. A. either, or B. neither, nor C. not, but D. both, and 23. He ran off________ I could stop him. A. before B. after C. since D. when 24. ________ you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. A. Till B. Until C. After D. Since GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 13 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 ĐÁP ÁN Bài tập 1: 1. when. 2. because. 3. until. 4. unless 5. since. 6. or. 7. but. 8. so. 9. when. 10. or. 11. because. 12. unless 13. so. 14. or Bài tập 2: 1. We know him and his friends. 2. The coat was both soft and warm. 3. It is stupid and quite unnecessary to do that. 4. I wanted to go but he wanted to stay. 5. Your arguments are b but they don’t convince me. 6. You can go there either by bus or by train. 7. I was feeling tired so I went to bed when I got home GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 14 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Bài tập 3: 1. before 2. when 3. unless 4. for fear that 5. until 6. although 7. so that 8. so.that 9. if 10. than 11. even though/although 12. wherever Bài tập 4: 1. Before 2. While 3. As if 4. Since 5. When Bài tập 5: 1. It was raining and I felt cold so I went indoors. 2. He loves her and she loves him , so they are getting married 3. I can paint the lounge or ( I can ) clear the fridge , but I can’t do both . 4. Mr Downes seemed poor , but in fact he had a lot of money 5. Tim is sleeping , so you can’t speak to him at the moment . GV: Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang Facebook: lopcoquynhtrang Moon.vn - Học để khẳng định mình 15 Hotline: 0432 99 98 98 Bài tập 6: 1. Despite / In spite of not being an intelligent student, he can learn very fast. 2. Because of Hoa’s richness, she could buy that house. 3. Because of the heavy rain, I couldn't go to school. 4. Because of his sickness his father asked him to go stay at home. 5. Because of an accident, I was late. 6. She failed the University entrance exam because of her bad grades . 7. Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful business man. 8. Because the price is cheap, my wife insists on buying the Tivi. 9. Despite / In spite of the heavy rain, we still went to school. 10. Because of studying hard , I passed the exam. Bài tập 7: 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. C 10. A 11. A 12. C 13. D 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. B 21. C 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. C

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