Application of diffusion theory of innovation and the model of technology acceptance in analyzing factors affecting to the use of balanced scorecard in Vietnamese hospitality firms

Applying Roger's Theory of Diffusion Innovation (1962) and Davis's Model of Technology

Acceptance (1986), this study examines the factors that influence the decision-making of the

enterprises in application of balanced scorecard in Vietnamese hospitality firms. An analysis of the

315 hotel managers indicates that managers' perceptions of usefulness and ability to acquire new

knowledge significantly influence the decision to use the balanced scorecard in Vietnamese

hospitality firms. The paper contribute lessons to literature and some valuable experiences of the

BSC application to reality for not only firms in Vietnam but also ones in international jurisdictions.

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variable indicate the managers’ methods applying to evaluate subordinates performance was not statistically significant, so the hypothesis H3 was not accepted. The detailed results are represented in the following table. Table 2: Summarize the results of the research on the factors affecting the use of BSC Variables Making decision Work coordination Surveillance β Sig β Sig β Sig The management control system being used in the organization .308 .000 .196 .000 .179 .000 The managers’ ability to receive new knowledge .291 .000 .196 .000 .203 .000 The managers’ methods applying to evaluate subordinates .019 .652 .051 .271 .054 .253 The perception of the usefulness of the BSC .309 .000 .262 .000 .391 .000 The perception of the ease of the BSC .123 .004 .281 .000 .079 .105 5. Conclusion The research has provided theoretical and practical contributions to the use of the BSC in Vietnamese hotels. In theory perspective, research has successfully applied research models and research theories in other countries to Vietnam. Specifically, the decision of the BSC application can be explained by both theoretical theories. The first is the theory of Diffusion Innovation by Rogers (1995) which documents three factors affecting to new management system in firms, including (1) managers’ characteristics; (2) organizations’ characteristics; and (3) organizations’ external factors. And the second theory is the Model of Technology Acceptance by Davis (1986) which is theoretical framework applicable to new technology acceptance. It is believed that this model is very useful in the researches of behavior 260 acceptance. Our research result is consistent with Davis (1986) and Bui Thi Hai Van, (2009) that the managers’ perception of usefulness and perception of the ease of the BSC are major factors affecting to application of the BSC in firms. Moreover, the findings also confirms the role of managers in deciding to apply BSC. We believe that the level of involvement and support of managers are the most powerful factor for the success of the BSC application. In practice, the research results will help managers to realize their role in the decision process to apply the BSC. The result also suggests some practical recommendation for Vietnamese hotels in applying the BSC in their operation aiming to improve performance and competitiveness. This research has shown that the usefulness factors, the ease of use, the ability to acquire new knowledge, and the management control system in use are influencing the implementation of the BSC. Based on these we suggest some following instructive points: The managers should know the usefulness of the BSC and this evaluation system is not very difficult to apply. This system can integrate with the existing measurement and management systems which the organization is using. Therefore, the members of the organization can be easily used if being trained, not only the managers. This reality should be diffused intensively and broadly so that the level of BSC acceptance in the organization will increase, facilitating the application process. In addition, the managers’ ability to receive new knowledge is also decisive to use the BSC application, so the hotel when recruiting should choose the managers who are creative, and always support innovation. Our study advocates behavioral attitudes at the individual level, influenced by organizational behavior, so when a manager sets goals for innovation, leaders must organize training and support. Employees have the necessary skills and knowledge to realize the innovation and send messages to other employees. The management control system being used in the organization is also critical for the intended use of the BSC. Research results show that management control tools are used in conjunction with the BSC to improve management efficiency and performance, so when deploying and implementing the BSC hotels should use the BSC concurrently with other the management control tools in a proper manner. 6. References Baird K.M., Harrison, G.L., Reeve, R.C. (2004), Adoption of activity management practices: a note on the extent of adoption and the influence of organizational and cultural factors, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 15 (2004) 383–399. Bergin-Seers, S. & Jago, L. (2007), Performance measurement in small motels in Australia, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7, pp.144-155. Bùi Thị Hải Vân ( 2009), Các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến dự định áp dụng thẻ điểm cân bằng vào các doanh nghiệp nhỏ và vừa tại Việt Nam. Đại học quốc gia TPHCM. Chenhall, R. H. (2003), Management control system design within its organizational 261 context: Findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future. 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(1996) "Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System." Harvard Business Review 74, no. 1: 75–85. Kaplan, R, S,, & Norton, D, P (2001), Transforming the balanced scorecard form performance measurement to strategic management, Accounting Horizon, p, 87-104; pp. 147-160 Nguyễn Đình Thọ (2013), Giáo trình phương pháp nghiên cứu khoa học trong kinh doanh, NXB Tài chính. Otley, D. (1999). Performance management: a framework for management control systems research, Management Accounting Research, Vol 10, pp 363-382. 262 Rogers E.M. (1962), Diffusion of innovations. Retrieved from Retrieved date: 03/9/2018. Otley, P. (2000), Budgetary criteria in performance evaluation: a critical appraisal using new evidence, Accounting, Organizations and Society, pp. 483- 496 Sandelin, M. (2008), Operation of management control practices as a package—A case study on control system variety in a growth firm context, Management Accounting Research Vol. 19 (2008) 324–343. Tanyi E. 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