Tài liệu ngữ pháp tiếng Anh THCS

*(Be):am, is, are not ; (have):has/ have not +got = do / does + not + have

 Diễn tả :  Tình cảm, cảm giác, nhận thức ở hđộng.

  Thói quen, phong tục, tập quán.

  Chân lí, sự thật hiển nhiên.

 Vôùi : EVERY (day, year ), ALWAYS, OFTEN, USUALLY, SOMETIME, SELDOM, RARELY, NEVER, EVER, ONCE / TWICE / THREE TIMES + ( a day/ week/ month ), all the time, now and then . . .

 

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töôøng thuaät phaûi ñoåi ngoâi : Ngoâi 1 à ñoåi theo ngöôøi noùi (S) Ngoâi 2 à ñoåi theo ngöôøi nghe (O) Ngoâi 3 à giöõ nguyeân V1 / Vs/es V2ed am is +Ving are was +Ving were has / have + V3ed V2ed had + V3ed was / were + Ving had been + Ving will shall can +V1 may must would should could +V1 might had to LESSON 13 : CLAUSES OF PURPOSE (Mệnh Đề Chỉ Mục Đích) SO THAT can/could S + V + _______________ + S + will/ would + V1 IN ORDER THAT shall/ should để mà may/ might Ex: a) We study hard. We want to pass the exam. « We study hard so that we can pass the exam. b) I helped Nam. I wanted him to finish the work on time. « I helped Nam in order that he could finish the work on time. Notes: Phrase of Purpose to S + V + in order to + V1 so as to in order for + O +TO đeÅ Ex: We study hard to pass the exam. « I helped Nam in order for him to finish the work on time. LESSON 14 : COMPARISONS ( So Sánh) Types Models 1/ Equal Degree (So sánh bằng) AS + adj / adv + AS (bằng, như) NOT AS/SO + adj. / adv + AS (không bằng, không như) 2/Comparitive Degree (So sánh hơn) adj. / adv(ngắn) + ER + THAN MORE + adj. / adv(dài) + THAN 3/ Superlative Degree (So sánh nhất) THE + adj. / adv(ngắn) + EST THE MOST + adj. / adv(dài) Examples: 1/ a) You are as tall as I am. (=me) b) John doesn’t work as/so effectively as Tom (does) 2/ a) The letter will probably arrive sooner than you expect. b) Mr. Smith can drive more carefully than his wife (can). 3/ a) She works (the) hardest of anyone in the class. b) That’s the most beautiful girl I’ve ever seen. Notes: 1/ Short Adj. / Adv (ngắn): - 1 vần Ex: tall, soon. Small - 2 vần tận cùng = -y,-er, -le,-ow, -et, Ex: happy, clever, simple, early. 2/ Long Adj. /Adv (dài): - 2 vần trở lên, trừ các trường hợp trên Ex: modern, carefully, comfortable - 2 vần tận cùng = -ly Ex: quickly, loudly 3/ So Sánh Nhất : Dùng cho 3 đối tượng trở lên. 4/ Khi thêm “-er ; -est” large larger largest big bigger biggest dry drier driest 5/ So Sánh Bất Qui Tắc: good / well better best bad / badly worse worst many/much more most little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest ä Sentence Transformation: 1/ adj. / adv + ER A + V + _______________ + THAN + B MORE + adj. /adv « B + V not + SO / AS + adj. /adv AS + A adj. / adv(phản nghĩa) + ER « B + V + ___________________________ + THAN + A MORE + adj. /adv(phản nghĩa) Ex: Betty is younger than Susan. « Susan is not so young as Betty. ( «Susan is older than Betty.) 2/ adj. + ER A + be + a(an) + ___________ + n + THAN + B MORE + adj. « B + V not + SO /AS + adv + AS + A Ex: He is a more careful driver than I am. «I don’t drive so carefully as he does. (=as him) 3/ S + has/have + never/not + V3 + such + a(an) + adj. + n (before) adj. + est «This is the + ___________ + n + (that) + S + has/have + (ever) V3 most + adj. Ex: He has never watched such an exciting match before. « This is the most exciting match he’s ever watched. 4/ adj. + er No one / Nobody + place + be + _________ + than + A more + adj. adj. + est « A + be + the + __________ + place most + adj Ex: No one in the village is stronger than Tom. « Tom is the strongest in the village. LESSON 15 : SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION ( Biến đổi câu) 1/ 1 khoảng TG + ago. S + started /began + Ving / to V1 + (prep.+) mốc TG V3 for + khoảng TG « S + has / have + + been +Ving since + mốc TG Ex: We started studying English half an hour ago. « We’ve been studying English for half an hour. 2a/ 1 khoaûng TG + ago. The last time + S + V2 + was + (prep.+) moác TG for + khoaûng TG « S + has / have not + V3 .. + since + moác TG Ex: The last time she had a swim was five years ago. « She has not had a swim for five years. 2b/ S + last + V2 + when S + V2 « S + has / have not + V3 .. + since + S + V2 Ex: I last went to the football match when I was a student. « I haven’t gone to the football match since I was a student. 3/ S + has / have not + V3 .. + for + 01 khoaûng TG « It + is + 1 khoaûng TG + since + S + V2 Ex: She hasn’t had a swim for five years. « It is five years since she had a swim. 4/ S + has /have + never/not + V 3 (+before) « This / it is the first time + (that) + S + has /have + ever + V 3 Ex: I’ve never visited Paris before. « This is the first time (that) I’ve (ever) visited Paris. 5/ S + V2 and then (S) + V2 « After + S + had + V3 , S + V2 Ex: I had breakfast and then went to school. « After I had had breakfast, I went to school. 6/ The formal subject “IT”: Ving / To V1 + be + adj. /n (+for O) « IT + be + adj. / n (+for O) + To V1 Ex: Knowing English is useful. « It is useful to know English. 7/ The formal object “IT”: Ving / To V1 + be + adj. /n « S + V* + IT + adj. / n + to V1 V* : find, make, think. consider, believe, feel, Ex: Living in the city is exciting. « Some people find it exciting to live in the city. 8/ be accustomed to = be used to + V ing become accustomed to = get used to Ex: We often go to school by bus. àWe are used to going to school by bus. 9/ used to + V 1 Ex: My grandfather often played tennis when he was young. « My grandfather used to play tennis when he was young. 10/ S + spend(s) / spent + time + V ing « It + takes / took (+ O) + time + To V1 Ex: We spent five hours getting to London. àIt took us five hours to get to London. 11/ can S + ____ not + V1 because of + n could prevent(s) / stop(s) « S + _________________ + O + from + Ving prevented / stopped Ex: We can’t drive because of fog. «The fog prevents us from driving. 12/ Inversion: Đảo ngữ Adv* + V + S Adv*: No longer, Never, Rarely, Seldom, Only, No sooner, Hardly . Ex: She no longer gets up early. « No longer does she get up early. 13/ Who + do /does + S + belong to? « Who own(s) .? « Whose + V + S ? « Whose + n + V + S . ? Ex: Who does this bicycle belong to? « Who owns this bicycle? « Whose is this bicycle? « Whose bicycle is this? 14/ Causative Form: O (Người) +V1 ( Chủ động) S + have / get + O (vật) + V3 (bị động) nhờ ai đó làm việc gì Ex : a) Tom is going to repair my T.V tomorrow. « I am going to have Tom repair my T.V tomorrow. « I am going to have my T.V repaired by Tom tomorrow. b) He’s getting someone to mend the window. « He’s having the window mended. 15/ Because + S + V « Because of + n / Ving Example: a) Because she walked in the sun, she was sick. « Because of walking in the sun, she was sick. b) Because the weather was bad,the train was delayed for twenty minutes. « Because of the bad weather, the train was delayed for twenty minutes. b) Because the + n + be + adj « Because of the + adj + n c) Because he is ill, he can’t go there. « Because of his illness, he can’t go there. c) Because S + be + adj « Because of poss. adj + n d) Because she behaves well, everybody loves her. « Because of her good behavior, everybody loves her. d) Because S + V*ord. + adv « Because of Poss. Adj + adj + n V* : develop, invent, liberate, discover, behave, rain (n) : development, invention, liberation, discovery, behavior, rain, .. e) Because there was the August Revolution, Vietnam was freed from colonialism and feudalism. « Because of the August Revolution, Vietnam was freed from colonialism and feudalism. e) Because + there + be + n « Because of + n 16/ Although / Though + S + V « In spite of / Despite + n /Ving . Ex: Although he is rich, he is extremely mean. « In spite of his richness, he is extremely mean. 17. Styles: Using N Using V There + be a determination There + be a tendency show a desire give thought to have knowledge of « S + be determined « S + tend « desire « think about/of « know about Ex: There is a determination to overcome problems. « Children are determined to overcome problems. LESSON 16 : SUBJECT AND VERB CONCORD (Sự Hòa Hợp Giữa Chủ Từ Và Động Từ) *Special Cases: 1/ prep n / pron + __________ + n / pron + V as well as Ex: The teacher with his students is in the classroom. 2/ N / Pron + or / nor + N / Pron + V Ex: Either he or you are the translator. 3/ Each ______ (of) + n / pron + V sing Every Ex: Each of us has books and pens. 4/ Everybody Somebody Anybody = Everyone = Anyone = no one + Vsing Everything Something Anything Ex: Everyone knows him. 5. None of + N/pron + V Ex : None of the students have good mark. None of the student has good mark. 6. A number of + N + Vplural Ex : A number of students are absent from class today. The number of + N + Vsingular This year, the number of accidents has risen. 7. S(thời gian, tiền, khoảng cách, trọng lượng) + Vsingular Ex : Twenty dollars is too much for that shirt. 8. S(Ving/To V) + Vsingular Ex : Smoking is bad for health. To live is to struggle ( Sống là tranh đấu ) 9. There + Be + N Ex : There is some sugar in the jar. There are some books on the self. 10. Phần trăm/phân số + of + Nkhông đếm được + Vsingular Ex : Sixty percent of waste paper is recycled. Phần trăm/phân số + of + Nplural + Vplural Ex : Half of the students in this school come from the country. LESSON 17 : EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY (Những Cụm Từ Chỉ Số Lượng) I. Expressions of quantity: 1) with plural, countable nouns: MOST A LARGE NUMBER OF MANY books are useful. A LOT OF / LOTS OF SOME (A) FEW 2) With uncountable nouns: MOST A GREAT DEAL OF MUCH sugar is sold. A LOT OF / LOTS OF SOME (A) LITTLE 3) With verbs: A GREAT DEAL OF They know MUCH about English literature. A LOT (A) LITTLE * Notes: 1. most them / us / . many + OF + the / this / that /these / those (a) few my / your /. /Tom’s/ . (a) little 2. Many / Much thường dùng : in neg. & inter. Form Ex: He can’t drink much. after TOO, SO, AS ,VERY Ex: There are too many night club here. 3. A little, a few Þ some : positive Ex : Would you like a little tea? Little , few Þ o : negative Ex : He’s a man of few words. II. HOW MUCH, HOW MANY Questions : 1) How many + pl. Count. Noun + inter. form? Ex: how many students are there in your class? 2) How much + uncount. noun + inter. form? Ex: how much time does jane spend studying? 3) How much + inter. form? Ex: how much did he drink last night? Notes: how many / how much + S + affir. form? Ex: How many English tourists have visited TV? Irregular verbs be:am/is/are Was/were, Been Là,thì,ở,bị,được beat Beat Beaten Đánh become Became Become Trở nên begin Began Begun Bắt đầu bind Bound Bound Trói,buộc,bám bite Bit Bitten Cắn blow Blew Blown Thổi break Broke Broken Làm gãy,làm vỡ bring Brought Brought Mang lại build Built Built Xây dựng buy Bought Bought Mua catch Caught Caught Bắt choose Chose Chosen Chọn lựa come Came Come Đến cost Cost Cost Trị giá cut Cut Cut Chặt, cắt do Did Done Làm draw Drew Drawn Vẽ drink Drank Drunk Uống drive Drove Driven Lái xe eat Ate Eaten Ăn fall Fell Fallen Rơi,té feed Fed Fed Cho ăn feel Felt Felt Cảm thấy fight Fought Fought Chiến đấu find Found Found Tìm thấy fly Flew Flown Bay forbid Forbad(e) Forbidden Cấm forget Forgot Forgetten Quên freeze Froze Frozen Đông lạnh get Got Got/gotten Bị,được,trở nên give Gave Given Cho go Went Gone Đi grow Grew Grown Trồng,mọc,phát triển hang Hung Hung Treo,mắc have Had Had Có hear Heard Heard Nghe hide Hid Hidden Che giấu,ẩn nấp hit Hit Hit Đụng,đánh hold Held Held Cầm,nắm,giữ hurt Hurt Hurt Làm đau keep Kept Kept Giữ know Knew Known Biết lay Laid Laid Đặt,để lead Led Led Dẫn,dắt leave Left Left Rời khỏi,để lại lend Lent Lent Cho mượn let Let Let Để cho lie Lay Lain Nằm lose Lost Lost Mất,thua,lỗ make Made Made Làm,chế tạo meet Met Met Gặp overcome Overcame Overcome Khắc phục,vượt qua pay Paid Paid Trả tiền put Put Put Đặt,để read Read Read Đọc ride Rode Ridden Cưỡi(ngựa, xe đạp) ring Rang Rung Rung (chuông) rise Rose Risen Mọc run Ran Run Chạy say Said Said Nói see Saw Seen Thấy seek Sought Sought Tìm đến sell Sold Sold Bán send Sent Sent Gửi shake Shook Shaken Rung, lắc shine Shone Shone Chiếu sáng shoot Shot Shot Bắn show Showed Shown Chỉ,cho xem sing Sang Sung Hát sleep Slept Slept Ngủ speak Spoke Spoken Nói sit Sat Sat Ngồi spend Spent Spent Trãi qua, tiêu xài stand Stood Stood Đứng steal Stole Stolen Ăn cắp strike Struke Struke Đánh swim Swam Swum Bơi swing Swung Swung Đung đưa,lúc lắc take Took Taken Lấy,đưa,dẫn teach Taught Taught Dạy tear Tore Torn Xé tell Told Told Kể,bảo think Thought Thought Suy nghĩ throw Threw Thrown Ném,liệng understand Understood Understood Hiểu wake Woke Woken Thức giấc wear Wore Worn Mặc,mang,đội win Won Won Thắng,đoạt write Wrote Written viết

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